Some of the first nomadic peoples entered Siberia about 50,000 years ago.  

Oldest Paleolithic Rock Art in Siberia between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago in the form of drawings of horses and bison scratched into rocks. Archaeologists are also hoping to find Paleolithic settlements or camps—traces of the people who left these drawings carved in stone. So far, who they were is entirely unknown. The drawings are at a site on the Ukok plateau on the Russian-Mongolian border near Kazakhstan where there is a modern tungsten-molybdenum mine, the Kalgutinskoye. There are more recent petroglyphs at the site. Researchers have run into problems in dating the Paleolithic-style drawings. But French researchers who studied the petroglyphs agree: They are even more ancient than previously believed,  reports Siberian Times. Speaking to Siberian Times, an archaeologist specializing in Siberia, Dr. Lidia Zotkina, said:

We believe that we managed to prove that the petroglyphs were made in the Paleolithic era – and are the most ancient in Siberia. When the French archaeologists first arrived on the Ukok plateau and saw the petroglyphs they said: “If we had found them somewhere in France, we would not doubt they are Paleolithic, but here, in Siberia, we need to prove it.”’

The prehistoric people who drew the petroglyphs etched them onto glacier-polished rhyolite on horizontal planes. Rhyolite is a volcanic rock. The windy conditions on the Ukok plateau prevent scientists from obtaining a clear stratigraphy, or geological dating, of the rocks upon which the glyphs are drawn. Archaeologists also cannot use the usual archaeological methods of dating the drawings and will need to come up with new or innovative methods to determine how old they are. Also, Petroglyphs have been found in other areas of Siberia, such as these at Mount Baga-Zarya, Buryatia. Dr. Zotkina said. “According to the preliminary data, the glacier retreated as early as between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago. So that is when ancient people could access this place and create the petroglyphs.”

Siberian Times asked Dr. Zotkina who made the petroglyphs: “Some big Paleolithic sites where people must have lived were not found yet. The climate on Ukok does not help to preserve such sites, so we do not know who could make these petroglyphs, if it is correct that they are Paleolithic. But I think that it is a matter of the time. Sooner or later Paleolithic sites will be found and we will get more information about the people who could engrave these images.” The Ukok Plateau also made the news last year  with the famous Siberian Ice Maiden , whose reburial finally took place after years of requests. The Ice Maiden, also known as the Princess of Ukok, was put on display after she was discovered in 1993, drawing attention for the elaborate tattoos covering her body. However, many believed that it was indecent to expose her  naked  form to the public. That reasoning, combined with the increased flooding and earthquakes in the Altay region, created a strong desire to put her spirit to rest. Ancient nomadic tribes such as the Ket people and the Yugh people a separate but similar group lived along its banks. Shamanism among Kets shares characteristics with those of Turkic and Mongolic peoples thus not at all homogeneous in expression though neither is shamanism in Siberia in general. As for shamanism among Kets had several types of Ket shamans and shared characteristics with those of Turkic and Mongolic peoples. Also, among Kets differing shamans was different sacral rites, power, and associated animals (deer or bear) and many other Siberian peoples like the Karagas who all seem to have a shared iconography using skeleton symbols. These skeleton symbols, could be a precursor to the later skull cult motivation in the fertile crescent, it may be bones of an helper animal or an ancestor used by a shaman, possibly joining the air and underwater worlds for a kind of shamanic rebirth expressed among some other Siberian cultures. The term “shamanism” which probably originates from the southwestern dialect derived from the Sym-Evenki peoples, connects to the Evenki word “Saman.” The Evenki language has three large dialect groups: the northern, the southern and the eastern dialects formerly known as Tungus or Solon member of the northern group of Tungusic languages (“Tungusic” referring to the Evenks/Evenki Indigenous peoples of Siberia, Northeast China 56 ethnic groups/ Mongolia 535 ethnic groups referred to as Khamnigan; a Mongolic language spoken east of Lake Baikal in Russia, located in southern Siberia) and especially the Oroqen language. The general area that is believed to be the native land of Evenki people involves a vast regions of Siberia between Lake Baikal and the Amur River. The Ewenki language forms the northern branch of the Manchu-Tungusic language group and is closely related to Even and Negidal in Siberia. Moreover, the term “shamanism” was first applied the ancient religion of the Turks, Mongols, Tungusic, and Samoyedic-speaking peoples but now describe even unrelated magico-religious practices in ethnic religions in Asia, Africa, Australasia and the Americas; which do to the seeming similarity in some themes and practices. The term Ket means “man” (plural understood as “men, people”) where a strictly organized patriarchal social system, thought to be the only survivors of an ancient nomadic people believed to have originally lived throughout central and southern Siberia descendants of the tribes of fishermen and hunters of the Yenisey taiga, who adopted some of the cultural ways of those original Ket-speaking tribes, who are suggested to be part of the Na-Dene language family represents a distinct migration of people from Asia to the New World. Na-Dene languages seem likely to connect to the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia into a Dene–Yeniseian family proposed in a 2014 paper that the Na-Dene languages of North America seem to connect to the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia into a Dene–Yeniseian family as a common origin in a language spoken in Beringia, between the two continents. Na-Dene (Proto-Athabascan–Eyak–Tlingit) also his also been purposed to have a connection to Haida, thus seemingly linking several isolated languages between the Asian and North American continent spreading religious thought. The Athabaskan languages, thus could possibly connect with both Northern (mainly northern parts of North America) and Southern (mainly southern parts of North America) Athabaskan of Native languages in the Americas. Northern Athabaskan connected dialects seem to be associated with such indigenous speakers in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Alaska, parts of Oregon, and northern California. and the American Southwest to northern Mexico. And in Southern Athabaskan or Apachean, and includes Apache and Navajo languages. Furthermore, the origin of the Evenks seems to involve a complex mixing of different ancient aboriginal tribes from the north of Siberia with tribes related in language to the Turks and Mongols. The language of these tribes took precedence over the languages of the aboriginal population “Vasilevich” meaning the Tungusic languages aborigianals the Kets in Evenkia and Yukagirs in Yakutia. A chum (similar to a Native American “tipi”) came from Komi word “com” or Udmurt word “cum” which both mean “tent like shelter” is a temporary dwelling used by the nomadic Uralic people of northern Ural (Nenets, Nganasans, Enets, Khanty, Mansi, Komi) reindeer herders of northern/northwestern Siberia of and the Tyvan Todzhans of southern Siberia have a similar chum/tipi structure. The Evenks, Tungusic peoples, tribes, in Russia, the southernmost reindeer herders, of the Todzha region of the Republic of Tyva as well as their over-the-border relatives in northern Mongolia and China all use chums/tipis. Around 115,000 to 15,000 years ago, Siberia was a time if glaciation generally consisting of a cold dry clement with tundra extending far south and some forest formations in the river valleys while an ice sheet covered area of Russia around the Ural Mountains that while some of the oldest mountains are more like large hills, and the area to the east of the lower Yenisei River basin, which in the general area of central and southern Siberia. Some of the first nomadic peoples entered Siberia about 50,000 years ago. The nomadic tribes Ket people Yugh people lived along the Yenisei River. The Yenisei basin originating Mongolia following north through central Siberia rock art images of shamans from the Middle Yenisci River flows north and the Middle lena River which flows northeast just 4 mi west of Lake Baikal that relatively connects to the Altai region, “Altai” means “Gold Mountain” there are images depicted on historical shamanic drums demonstrate a striking similarity with what is shown on the rock engravings. Images were painted on a drum·skin and served as symbols and sources of secret knowledge. Some of the pairings on existing drums are almost exact duplicates of the images on the rocks seemingly demonstrates a possible relationship between the shaman and the decoration of drums in a shamans totem to help take them to other spheres of the universe, as another form of a protective covering that makes the drum noise of war animals and believed as a model of the universe itself embodying the ancestral connection to the owner of the drum and the female or male shaman him or herself drum owner. Some Siberian people perceived a drum as having once been a “female being” later transformed by a new ‘owner’, the shaman, who received the rights to the drum by undergoing a ceremonial marriage with the rocks (shamanistic rock art. These images, perhaps have a relationship between the medicine weal symbol seen in some Native American cultures as a metaphor for a variety of spiritual concepts and was also made into stone monument that illustrates this shamans totem. Medicine (“medicine” denotes sacred) weal symbols (similar to a metaphor concept used by multiple Native Americans tribes) sacred hoop of life) where often constructed with stones circle and with internal spokes formed into a patterns on the ground on the ground oriented to the four directions. by several different Indigenous peoples in North America, especially those of the Plains nations. Seen as sacred architecture associated with religious ceremonies where the Circle of Life teachings are believed to promote the creation of knowledge through relationship building and take into consideration the four elements of being: physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional traditional drumming circles may also have a Circle of Life/ medicine weal symbiology achieving balance between these four elements. Stone medicine wheels are sited throughout the northern United States and southern Canada, specifically South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Alberta and Saskatchewan. The majority of the approximately 70 documented stone structures still extant are in Alberta, Canada. Ceremonial Drums are painted with Hand drums as Aboriginal women hand-drumming practices has been an integral part of Aboriginal cultures likely far into prehistory where to some the drumbeat represents the a kind of heartbeat of Mother Earth and interestingly the North American Aboriginal cultures Ojibwe tradition suggests that, historically, drumming was predominantly the role of men, accept Ojibwe women traditionally used medicine drums, in particular the water drum. Water drums are used all over the world, including American Indian music made of various materials, with a membrane stretched over a pot. Water drumming is actually of African origin simplest form involves striking the surface of water directly with one’s hands. Aboriginal women had a hand drum to sing lullabies to their babies believing it helps the baby connect with its mother’s heart beat again as well as become connected to the spiritual culture. The Painted Drum (a sacred Ojibwe drum) in traditional views surrounding Indigenous birthing and mother-child relationship ceremony. The story of the drum, is a traditional story a little girl brought the two nations together around the traditional drum as the Creator had explained to her, to play the drum together and unite the Mohawks and Ojibwe nation who before where always at war started to play, they played loud, and proud, providing Mother Earth’s heartbeat ending the waring. The drum may be seen in Siberia as one of the essential shamanic aubrites, of crucial assistance in attaining an altered state of conciseness. this ritual confirmed the drum as a living entity. and it was following this act that images were created on it. The painting of the drum-skin with different motifs thus completing the final action in the process of drum creation. The drum and drumstick together there after became personal attributes of the shaman who then was believed to gain the ability to change the essence of things and (0 transform themselves into anything that the shaman might need in the course of his or her activities from things like a spiritual journey or during a struggle with the shaman’s enemies. Ancient nomadic tribes such as the Ket people and the Yugh people a separate but similar group lived along its banks. Shamanism among Kets shares characteristics with those of Turkic and Mongolic peoples thus not at all homogeneous in expression though neither is shamanism in Siberia in general. As for shamanism among Kets had several types of Ket shamans and shared characteristics with those of Turkic and Mongolic peoples. Also, among Kets differing shamans was different sacral rites, power, and associated animals (deer or bear) and many other Siberian peoples like the Karagas who all seem to have a shared iconography using skeleton symbols. These skeleton symbols, could be a precursor to the later skull cult motivation in the fertile crescent, it may be bones of an helper animal or an ancestor used by a shaman, possibly joining the air and underwater worlds for a kind of shamanic rebirth expressed among some other Siberian cultures. The term “shamanism” which probably originates from the southwestern dialect derived from the Sym-Evenki peoples, connects to the Evenki word “Saman.” The Evenki language has three large dialect groups: the northern, the southern and the eastern dialects formerly known as Tungus or Solon member of the northern group of Tungusic languages (“Tungusic” referring to the Evenks/Evenki Indigenous peoples of Siberia, Northeast China 56 ethnic groups/ Mongolia 535 ethnic groups referred to as Khamnigan; a Mongolic language spoken east of Lake Baikal in Russia, located in southern Siberia) and especially the Oroqen language. The general area that is believed to be the native land of Evenki people involves a vast regions of Siberia between Lake Baikal and the Amur River. The Ewenki language forms the northern branch of the Manchu-Tungusic language group and is closely related to Even and Negidal in Siberia. Moreover, the term “shamanism” was first applied the ancient religion of the Turks, Mongols, Tungusic, and Samoyedic-speaking peoples but now describe even unrelated magico-religious practices in ethnic religions in Asia, Africa, Australasia and the Americas; which do to the seeming similarity in some themes and practices. The term Ket means “man” (plural understood as “men, people”) where a strictly organized patriarchal social system, thought to be the only survivors of an ancient nomadic people believed to have originally lived throughout central and southern Siberia descendants of the tribes of fishermen and hunters of the Yenisey taiga, who adopted some of the cultural ways of those original Ket-speaking tribes, who are suggested to be part of the Na-Dene language family represents a distinct migration of people from Asia to the New World. Na-Dene languages seem likely to connect to the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia into a Dene–Yeniseian family proposed in a 2014 paper that the Na-Dene languages of North America seem to connect to the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia into a Dene–Yeniseian family as a common origin in a language spoken in Beringia, between the two continents. Na-Dene (Proto-Athabascan–Eyak–Tlingit) also his also been purposed to have a connection to Haida, thus seemingly linking several isolated languages between the Asian and North American continent spreading religious thought. The Athabaskan languages, thus could possibly connect with both Northern (mainly northern parts of North America) and Southern (mainly southern parts of North America) Athabaskan of Native languages in the Americas. Northern Athabaskan connected dialects seem to be associated with such indigenous speakers in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Alaska, parts of Oregon, and northern California. and the American Southwest to northern Mexico. And in Southern Athabaskan or Apachean, and includes Apache and Navajo languages. Furthermore, the origin of the Evenks seems to involve a complex mixing of different ancient aboriginal tribes from the north of Siberia with tribes related in language to the Turks and Mongols. The language of these tribes took precedence over the languages of the aboriginal population “Vasilevich” meaning the Tungusic languages aborigianals the Kets in Evenkia and Yukagirs in Yakutia. A chum (similar to a Native American “tipi”) came from Komi word “com” or Udmurt word “cum” which both mean “tent like shelter” is a temporary dwelling used by the nomadic Uralic people of northern Ural (Nenets, Nganasans, Enets, Khanty, Mansi, Komi) reindeer herders of northern/northwestern Siberia of and the Tyvan Todzhans of southern Siberia have a similar chum/tipi structure. The Evenks, Tungusic peoples, tribes, in Russia, the southernmost reindeer herders, of the Todzha region of the Republic of Tyva as well as their over-the-border relatives in northern Mongolia and China all use chums/tipis. Around 115,000 to 15,000 years ago, Siberia was a time if glaciation generally consisting of a cold dry clement with tundra extending far south and some forest formations in the river valleys while an ice sheet covered area of Russia around the Ural Mountains that while some of the oldest mountains are more like large hills, and the area to the east of the lower Yenisei River basin, which in the general area of central and southern Siberia. Some of the first nomadic peoples entered Siberia about 50,000 years ago. The nomadic tribes Ket people Yugh people lived along the Yenisei River. The Yenisei basin originating Mongolia following north through central Siberia rock art images of shamans from the Middle Yenisci River flows north and the Middle lena River which flows northeast just 4 mi west of Lake Baikal that relatively connects to the Altai region, “Altai” means “Gold Mountain” there are images depicted on historical shamanic drums demonstrate a striking similarity with what is shown on the rock engravings. Images were painted on a drum·skin and served as symbols and sources of secret knowledge. Some of the pairings on existing drums are almost exact duplicates of the images on the rocks seemingly demonstrates a possible relationship between the shaman and the decoration of drums in a shamans totem to help take them to other spheres of the universe, as another form of a protective covering that makes the drum noise of war animals and believed as a model of the universe itself embodying the ancestral connection to the owner of the drum and the female or male shaman him or herself drum owner. Some Siberian people perceived a drum as having once been a “female being” later transformed by a new ‘owner’, the shaman, who received the rights to the drum by undergoing a ceremonial marriage with the rocks (shamanistic rock art. These images, perhaps have a relationship between the medicine weal symbol seen in some Native American cultures as a metaphor for a variety of spiritual concepts and was also made into stone monument that illustrates this shamans totem. Medicine (“medicine” denotes sacred) weal symbols (similar to a metaphor concept used by multiple Native Americans tribes) sacred hoop of life) where often constructed with stones circle and with internal spokes formed into a patterns on the ground on the ground oriented to the four directions. by several different Indigenous peoples in North America, especially those of the Plains nations. Seen as sacred architecture associated with religious ceremonies where the Circle of Life teachings are believed to promote the creation of knowledge through relationship building and take into consideration the four elements of being: physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional traditional drumming circles may also have a Circle of Life/ medicine weal symbiology achieving balance between these four elements. Stone medicine wheels are sited throughout the northern United States and southern Canada, specifically South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Alberta and Saskatchewan. The majority of the approximately 70 documented stone structures still extant are in Alberta, Canada. Ceremonial Drums are painted with Hand drums as Aboriginal women hand-drumming practices has been an integral part of Aboriginal cultures likely far into prehistory where to some the drumbeat represents the a kind of heartbeat of Mother Earth and interestingly the North American Aboriginal cultures Ojibwe tradition suggests that, historically, drumming was predominantly the role of men, accept Ojibwe women traditionally used medicine drums, in particular the water drum. Water drums are used all over the world, including American Indian music made of various materials, with a membrane stretched over a pot. Water drumming is actually of African origin simplest form involves striking the surface of water directly with one’s hands. Aboriginal women had a hand drum to sing lullabies to their babies believing it helps the baby connect with its mother’s heart beat again as well as become connected to the spiritual culture. The Painted Drum (a sacred Ojibwe drum) in traditional views surrounding Indigenous birthing and mother-child relationship ceremony. The story of the drum, is a traditional story a little girl brought the two nations together around the traditional drum as the Creator had explained to her, to play the drum together and unite the Mohawks and Ojibwe nation who before where always at war started to play, they played loud, and proud, providing Mother Earth’s heartbeat ending the waring. The drum may be seen in Siberia as one of the essential shamanic aubrites, of crucial assistance in attaining an altered state of conciseness. this ritual confirmed the drum as a living entity. and it was following this act that images were created on it. The painting of the drum-skin with different motifs thus completing the final action in the process of drum creation. The drum and drumstick together there after became personal attributes of the shaman who then was believed to gain the ability to change the essence of things and (0 transform themselves into anything that the shaman might need in the course of his or her activities from things like a spiritual journey or during a struggle with the shaman’s enemies.