The Weakening of Ancient Trade and the Strengthening of Religions?
 
When the large distance trade routes were heavily constrained. The relatively free flow of trade in Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Levant and Turkey around or shortly after 3000 years ago (Iron Age starts) becomes constrained. Due somewhat to the larger geopolitical city state destabilization and chaotic reorganization. This is when religion and culture meshes and becomes stronger and individually consolidated rather being opened and dramatically widespread. Religion was able to hone in on the specifics of their religion (rituals, practices, rules, laws, most specifically a more defined sectarianism forms of religions) that was more personal and evolved for them. This was their encapsulated way of life which now is the basis of today’s major fracture religions. These major religions of the world can still be see exhibiting this consolidated and closed end thinking like a circling of wagons; an us versus them mentality of sectarianism.

What’s is Some Proof?

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Around 3,050 to 2,771 years ago in China the Zhou dynasty is formed but generally it is thought to be around 1046 BCE, Wen’s son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye, that officially marked the beginning of the Zhou dynasty. According to Chinese mythology, the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan, a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku, miraculously conceived a child, Qi “the Abandoned One”, after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi. Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with greatly improving Xia agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a later posthumous name, Houji “Lord of Millet”, by the Tang of Shang. He even received sacrifice as a harvest god. The term Hòujì was probably an hereditary title attached to a lineage. The Eastern Zhou, however, is also remembered as the golden age of Chinese philosophy: the Hundred Schools of Thought which flourished as rival lords patronized itinerant shi scholars is led by the example of Qi’s Jixia Academy. The Nine Schools of Thought which came to dominate the others were Confucianism (as interpreted by Mencius and others), Legalism, Taoism, Mohism, the utopian communalist Agriculturalism, two strains of Diplomatists, the sophistic Logicians, Sun-tzu’s Militarists, and the Naturalists. Although only the first three of these went on to receive imperial patronage in later dynasties, doctrines from each influenced the others and Chinese society in sometimes unusual ways. The Mohists, for instance, found little interest in their praise of meritocracy but much acceptance for their mastery of siege warfare; much later, however, their arguments against nepotism were used in favor of establishing the imperial examination system. Lastly the first IMPERIAL rule in china is in the Qin dynasty 2,221 to 2,206 years ago then the Han dynasty around 2,206 to 1,797 years ago. While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk (and horses) carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty (2,207 to 2,220 years ago). The Han dynasty expanded Central Asian sections of the trade routes around 2,114 years ago, largely through missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy, Zhang Qian. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the Great Wall of China to ensure the protection of the trade route. Trade on the Silk Road played a significant role in the development of the civilizations of China, the Goguryeo kingdom (Korea), Japan, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, opening long-distance political and economic relations between the civilizations. Though silk was certainly the major trade item exported from China, many other goods were traded, as well as religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies. Diseases, most notably plague, also spread along the Silk Routes. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. The main traders during antiquity included the Chinese, Arabs, Indians, Somalis, Syrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Georgians, Armenians, Bactrians, Turkmens, and (from 1,500 to 1,200 years ago) the Sogdians. The Silk Road or Silk Route was an ancient network of trade routes that were for centuries central to cultural interaction originally through regions of Eurasia connecting the East and West and stretching from the Korean peninsula and Japan to the Mediterranean Sea.

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Around 3,050 years ago Phoenician alphabet is invented spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it evolved and was assimilated by many other cultures. Phoenician is a Northern Semitic language. It is believed to be one of the ancestors of modern alphabets. By their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to Anatolia, North Africa, and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks who developed it into an alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. The name “Phoenician” is by convention given to inscriptions beginning around 3,050 years ago, because Phoenician, Hebrew, and other Canaanite dialects were largely indistinguishable before that time. The so-called Ahiram epitaph, engraved on the sarcophagus of king Ahiram from about 3,000 years ago, shows essentially a fully developed Phoenician script. The Phoenicians were among the first state-level societies to make extensive use of alphabets: the family of Canaanite languages, spoken by Israelites, Phoenicians, Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites and Edomites, was the first historically attested group of languages to use an alphabet, derived from the Proto-Canaanite script, to record their writings. The Proto-Canaanite script uses around 30 symbols but was not widely used until the rise of new Semitic kingdoms around 3,300 to 3,200 years ago. The Proto-Canaanite script is derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs.

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A 3,000 year ago inscriptions date the Proto-Dravidian language, a classical language spoken in India.

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Around 3,000 years ago Hungarian separates from its closest linguistic relatives, the Ob-Ugric languages.

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Around 3,000 years ago Cherchen Man an adult male Caucasoid was warring “thick clothes and socks made of rainbow-colored wool” buried in a tomb made of mud bricks topped with reeds and brush, like other mummies from the Tarim, described as looking “like a Bronze Age European” and/or as resembling “a Celt”, However, Cherchen Man was more likely connected to the so-called Afanasevo culture – an Indo-European people located in Siberia during the 6,000 to 5,000 years ago. The Tarim mummies were naturally-mummified remains.  Cherchen Man an adult male was discovered in a Tomb with a female mummy known as “Cherchen Woman” and an infant known as the “Blue Baby” at the cemetery of Zaghunluq near the town of Qiemo (Cherchen) in the Taklamakan Desert, Xinjiang, north-west China.

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Around 3,000 years ago Assyrians started to conquer neighboring regions. And after this date, the power of both the Hittites and Egyptians began to decline yet again because of the power of the Assyrians. The Assyrian king Shalmaneser I had seized the opportunity to vanquish and occupy lands expanding up to the head waters of the Euphrates river in Turkey, Iran, Syria, to the north into central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) as well as into Canaan (Israel) and Phoenicia (Lebanon from around 3,200 to 3,000 years ago), while Muwatalli who was a king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite empire (3,295 to 3,272) was preoccupied with the Egyptians to which He is best known as the Hittite ruler who fought Ramesses II to a standstill at the Battle of Kadesh around 3,274 years ago. In the ensuing trendy, Seti effectively ceded Kadesh to the Hittite king in order to focus on domestic issues in Egypt. Hittite-Egyptian relations officially began once the Hatti took over Mitanni’s role as the ruling power in central Syria and from there tensions would continue to be high until the conclusion of the treaty nearly one hundred years later. During the invasion and eventual defeat of Mitanni, the Hittite armies poured into Syria and began to exert their rule over the Egyptian vassals of Kadesh and Amurru. The loss of these lands in northern Syria would never be forgotten by the Egyptian pharaohs and their later actions demonstrated that they never would fully concede this loss at the hands of the Hittite Empire. Egypt’s attempts to regain the territory lost during the rule of Akhenaten continued to be futile until under the leadership of Seti I, the father of Ramesses II, significant gains did start to be made. In his own Kadesh-Amurru campaign against the Hittite armies, Seti I vanquished his foes at a battle near Kadesh, but the gains proved short-lived since Kadesh was eventually given up by Seti in a later treaty. The short gain by the Egyptians was the “opening salvo” of a conflict between the two nations, which would drag on over the next two decades. The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, also known as the Eternal Treaty or the Silver Treaty, is the only ancient Near Eastern treaty for which both sides’ versions have survived. It is sometimes called the Treaty of Kadesh after the well-documented Battle of Kadesh fought some sixteen years earlier, although Kadesh is not mentioned in the text. Both sides of the treaty have been the subject of intensive scholarly study. The treaty itself did not bring about a peace; in fact, “an atmosphere of enmity between Hatti and Egypt lasted many years,” until the eventual treaty of alliance was signed. Translation of the texts revealed that this engraving was originally translated from silver tablets given to each side, which have since been lost to contemporary historians. The Egyptian version of the peace treaty was engraved in hieroglyphics on the walls of two temples belonging to Pharaoh Ramesses II in Thebes: the Ramesseum and the Precinct of Amun-Re at the Temple of Karnak. The scribes who engraved the Egyptian version of the treaty included descriptions of the figures and seals that were on the tablet that the Hittites delivered. The Hittite version was found in the Hittite capital of Hattusa (in present day Turkey), preserved on baked clay tablets uncovered among the Hittite royal palace’s sizable archives. A copy of this treaty is prominently displayed on a wall in the United Nations Headquarters. The earliest sites in Assyria belonged to the Jarmo culture (around 9,100 years ago) in Southern Kurdistan (northern Iraq) on the foothills in the Zagros Mountains with clay figures, zoomorphic or anthropomorphic, including figures of pregnant women which are taken to be fertility goddesses, similar to the Mother Goddess of later cultures in the same region. Also, the earliest sites in Assyria belonged to Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture, around 8,000 years ago. Jarmo should be broadly understood contemporary with such other important Neolithic sites such as Jericho in the southern Levant and Catal Hoyuk in Turkey. The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible (Genesis 10:10). The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan (modern Bahrain and Oman) in the Arabian Peninsula. During the around 5,000 to 4,000 years ago there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 4,000 years ago (the exact dating being a matter of debate). The history of Assyria begins with the formation of the city of Assur perhaps as early as the 4,500 years ago. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9