Sun and Moon Goddesses

List of the Sun Goddesses

Aditi – a Hindu Goddess from India, keeper of the light that illuminates all life and ensures consciousness. She gave birth to the universe and the heavenly bodies.

Aine – Irish Goddess who represented the spark of life. Her festival was celebrated on Midsummer’s eve. Later she was remembered in Christian times as the fairy queen

Akycha – An Alaskan solar Goddess who once lived on earth as a beautiful woman. She fled into the sky after her brother raped her.

Amaterasu – Japanese Shinto Goddess, her name means great shinning heaven. She is the head of the Japanese pantheon and her emblem, the rising sun, appears on the Japanese flag.

Bast – The Lion Goddess of sunset, among her many roles she symbolized the fertilizing rays of the sun.

Beiwe – Sámi Goddess of Lapland, she was celebrated at the summer solstice for providing the light the plants needed to grow. These in turn fed the reindeer that were vital source of food, clothing, and tools for the people.

Bila – The cannibal Aboriginal Goddess who provided light for the world by cooking her victims over a giant flame. She was chased away but the world was then plunged into darkness, so Bila was captured and tethered to the earth.

Brigid – A Celtic fire Goddess, as a solar deity her attributes are light, inspiration and all skills associated with fire.

Chup-Kamui – A modest Japanese moon Goddess. She traded places with the sun God as she was so embarrassed by the adulterous and lecherous behavior that was occurring at night.

Djanggawul Sisters – Aboriginal Goddesses from Arhemland. These daughters of the sun gave birth to all the plants and animals. Their magical power objects were stolen from them by their brothers.

Hathor – Egyptian Goddess of the sky. Hathor is depicted with the solar disk indicating that this is one of her many areas of influence.

Hekoolas – Native American Goddess, with the help of the trickster Coyote, man was able to convince her to light up this world.

Medusa – The Greek Goddess is said to derive from an earlier Anatolian deity. This theory is supported by images of her with a lion that symbolized the power of the sun.

Pattini – A Sri Lankan solar deity who represents the heat of the sun’s rays.

Olwen – Welsh sun Goddess, her name means “golden wheel.”

Saule – Lithuanian, golden haired Goddess. She rode across the sky in a chariot pulled by two white horses with golden manes, battling with the powers of darkness.

Sekhmet -A Lion headed Goddess of Egypt, she represented the destructive qualities of the suns rays causing drought and famine.

Shapash – Phoenician Goddess whose name meant “torch or light of the Gods”. In addition to being a solar Goddess she was also able to travel through the realms of the dead.

Solntse – Slavic sun Goddess

Sunna – Nordic Goddess of the Sun, also known as Sol, her chariot was pulled across the sky by two horses

Uelanuhi – Cherokee Goddess of the Sun, her name meant “apportioner”, as she was responsible for dividing time into units. Her warmth was captured for man by Grandmother Spiderwoman’s web.

Walo – Aboriginal Goddess who traveled across the sky with her daughter, Bar. One day Walo realized that the reason the earth was parched was due to their combined heat, she then sent her daughter back to the east so that the earth could become fertile and bloom.

Wuriupranili – Another Aboriginal sun deity who lit a bark torch and carried the flame through the sky from east to west. At the western sea, she dipped it in the water, then used the embers to guide her under the earth to reach her starting point again.

Wurusemu – Ancient Hittite sun Goddess. She is also known as Arinna.

Xatel-Ekwa – Hungarian Goddess, like many other ancient European solar Goddesses she is linked with horses as she rode through the air on her three steeds. Ref

Moon Goddess List

Aega (Greek) – A beautiful moon deity. Her mother Gaia, the ancient earth Goddess, hid her in a cave during a Titan attack on the Olympic deities to prevent her from being taken away.

Aine (Celtic) – Goddess of love, growth, cattle, and light. The name of this Celtic Goddess means “bright” as she lights up the dark. Celebrations to this Goddess were held on Midsummer night

Anahita (Persian) – A river Goddess who was also Goddess of Venus and the moon. Her name means “pure” Or immaculate one” as she represented the cleansing and fertilizing flow of the cosmos.

Andromeda (Greek) – Although today she is linked with the stars many scholars believe that Andromeda was a pre-Hellenic moon deity.

Anunit (Babylonian) – Goddess of the moon and battle. She was also associated with the evening star and later became known as Ishtar.

Arianrhod (Celtic) – Goddess of the moon and stars, her name means “silver- wheel” the wheel of the year and the web of fate.

Artemis (Greek) – The Greek Goddess of the hunt, nature and birth. This maiden Goddess is symbolized by the crescent moon.

Arawa (African) – Lunar Goddess of the Suk and Pokot tribes of Kenya and Uganda. Her parents were the creator God Tororut and his consort Seta.

Athenesic (Native North American) – A moon Goddess of several north central Native American tribes,

Auchimalgen (South American) – This moon Goddess was a Deity of divination and a protectress from evil spirits.

Bendis (Greek) – Bendis was the consort of the sun God Sabazius. Her cult flourished in Athens during the fifth century BCE.

Britomartis (Crete) – In addition to her lunar attributes she was also the patron Goddess of Cretan sailors.

Candi (Indian) – The female counterpart to Chandra, ancient Hindu lord of the Moon. The two were said to take turns: one month the Candi would become the moon and the next Chandra fulfill the role.

Cerridwen (Celtic) – This crone, Goddess is most famous for her cauldron of wisdom. She was the mother of the great bard Taliesin, and is deeply linked to the image of the waning moon.

Chang- O (Chinese) – The Chinese Goddess who lived on the moon She is celebrated to this day on full moon night of the 8th lunar month.

Coyolxauhqui (Aztec) – Aztec moon Goddess, her name means “Golden Bells.” She was the daughter of the Earth goddess, Coatlicue and the sister of the Sun god, Huitzilopochtli.

Dae-Soon (Korean) – Lunar Goddess.

Diana (Roman) – Diana was the Goddess of the hunt and wild animals. She later took over from Luna as the Roman Goddess of the moon, responsible for fertility and childbirth.

Gnatoo (Japanese) – One of twelve Buddhist deities called the Jiu No O, adopted from Hindu mythology.

Gwaten (Hindu) – She is derived from the Hindu God Soma, and is portrayed as a woman holding in her right hand, a disk symbolizing the Moon.

Epona (Roman/Celtic) – This horse Goddess was associated with the night and dreams. In western Ireland, legends still abound of hearing the hoof-beats of her horse as she rides west to escape the rays of the rising sun. She was also a Goddess of magic, fertility and feminine power.

Hanwi (Native North American) – Goddess of the Oglala Sioux, she once lived with the sun God Wi. Due to a transgression, she was forced by him to become a creature of the night.

Hekate (Greek) – A crone Moon Goddess, deeply associated with the waning and dark moons. She is depicted as haunting crossroads with her two large hounds, and carrying a torch, symbolic of her great wisdom.

Hina Hine (Polynesian) – This Hawaiian Goddesses name means ‘woman who works the moon’. In her myths it is said that she grew tired of working for her brother and fled to the moon to live in peace.

Hina-Ika (“lady of the fish”) – Once again we see the link between the lunar Goddess to the tides.

Huitaco (South American) – This Colombian Goddess was a protectress of women as well as a deity of pleasure and happiness who was always battling with her male counterpart Bochica, a God of hard work and sorrow.

Ishtar (Babylonian) – Some myths say she is the daughter of the moon, others the mother.

Isis (Egyptian) – This powerful and widely worshipped Goddess was not only a moon deity, but a Goddess of the sun as well.

Ix Chel (Mayan) – A Central American moon Goddess and the lover of the sun. Poisonous snakes were her totem animal. She was also Goddess of childbirth.

Izanami (Japanese) – This Goddess controlled the tides, fishing and all destructive sea phenomena.

Jezanna (Central African) – Goddess of the moon and healing.

Juna (Roman) – A Goddess of the new moon. She was worshipped mainly by women as she was the Goddess of marriage, pregnancy and childbirth. Her Greek equivalent was Hera.

Jyotsna (Indian) – A Hindu Goddess of twilight and the autumn moons.

Komorkis (Native North American) – The Blackfoot tribe celebrated her as the Goddess of the moon.

Kuan Yin (Chinese) – A Buddhist Goddess. Modern feminist Pagans believe she far pre-dates Buddhist origins. She was a Goddess of the moon, compassion, and healing,

Lasya (Tibetan) – Goddess of the moon and beauty who carried a mirror.

Lucina (Roman) – Goddess of light with both solar and lunar attributes. She was Christianised as St. Lucia, a saint still honoured at Yule in many parts of Europe.

Luna (Roman) – An ancient moon Goddess, the namesake for the Latin word luna meaning ‘moon’. Her name also forms the root of the English words ‘lunar’ and ‘lunatic’.

Mama Quilla (Inkan) – As the Goddess of the moon she was the protectress of married women. A large temple to her was erected at the Inkan capitol of Cuzco. She was associated with the metal silver. Eclipses were said to occur when she was eaten and the regurgitated by the Jaguar Woman.

Mawu (African) – She ruled the sky with her twin bother, the sun God Lisa. To her people she symbolized both wisdom and knowledge.

Metzli (Aztec) – In Aztec mythology mother moon leapt into a blazing fire and gave birth to the sun and the sky.

Rhiannon (Celtic) – A Goddess of fertility, the moon, night, and death. Her name means ‘night queen’. She is also known as Rigantona.

Sadarnuna (Sumerian) – Goddess of the new moon.

Sarpandit (Sumerian) – Goddess of moonrise. This pregnant Goddess’s name means “silver shining” referring to the reflective quality of the moon.

Sefkhet (Egyptian) – According to some myths this lunar Goddess was the wife of Thoth. She was also the deity of time, the stars, and architecture.

Selene (Greek) – A mother Goddess linked to the full moon. She is widely worshipped by Pagans today.

Sina (Polynesian) – This moon Goddess was the sister of the sun God Maui. She was sometimes called Ina.

Teczistecatl (Aztec) – A Goddess of sex, symbolised by the four phases of the moon: dark, waxing, full, and waning.

Trivia (Roman) – She is the equivalent Goddess to Selene in Roman mythology.

Xochhiquetzal (Aztec) – This magical moon Goddess was the deity of flowers, spring, sex, love, and marriage. She was the wife of storm God Tlaloc. She is also the patroness of artisans, prostitutes, pregnant women and birth.

Yemanja (Native South American) – She was the Brazilian Goddess of the oceans symbolized by a waxing crescent moon. Yemanja was also considered to represent the essence of motherhood and a protector of children.

Yolkai Estsan (Native North American) – A Navajo moon deity fashioned from an abalone shell by her sister Yolkai, the Goddess of the sky. She was the Navaho Goddess of the earth and the seasons, and is also known as White Shell Woman.

Zirna (Etruscan) – A Goddess of the waxing moon. She is always depicted with a half-moon hanging from her neck, indicating that she was probably honored at the beginning of the second quarter phase of the moon. Ref


 Dawn Goddess List

“Other Goddesses associated with the break of day include.”

Aja (Sumerian) – Associated with the eastern mountains where she helped the sun into the sky at the beginning of the new day.

Astarte (Phoenician) – Goddess of the morning star. Her role was later assimilated by the Goddess Ishtar.

Eos (Greek)  – She is Aurora’s Greek counter-part. Follow the link to find out more about this Goddess.

Hekt (Egyptian) – A frog- headed, Egyptian Goddess who is midwife to the sun each morning

Ostara (Germanic) – Her name means East or morning light, she is also Goddess of Spring. Large bonfires were lit at dawn on the spring Equinox to honor this Goddess.

Tefnut (Egyptian) – Goddess of morning dew, linked to the East where the sun begins its travels across the skies.

Thea (Greek) – Pre-Olympian Goddess of light and mother of the dawn.

Usas (Hindu) – This goddess of the dawn was the remover of darkness and the bringer of light.

Zorya (Slavic) – Associated with the morning star. Ref


Sedentism and the Creation of goddesses 

Sedentism or sedentariness and the creation of goddesses after 12,000 years ago,
then gods after 7,000 years ago
As sedentary people had agriculture and the idea of gods likely spread thereafter as well as the obvious religious transfer and blending during this period began to depend more heavily upon domesticated plants and animals thus gods as well believe to add in such new survival tactics. These new sedentary ways somewhat improved the assurance of ready food when times were good but just as often this life added new limits unfamiliar to people that lived before because before when times when got bad in an area they simply moved on but not for land fixed the trials and troubles could not be escaped. Therefore, these early sedentary peoples presumably believed that the only way they had to control their situation was worshiping some great spirit (i.e. seemingly goddesses then gods) that could assist them from their being land locked to one place or space, thus heightened resource vulnerability. Thus, resource vulnerability (adds fear motivation in the gods creation), so the sedentary people more than their hunter gathers counter parts would tend to feel more trapped to the whims of the spirits and ancestors to guide them and one can see that if one did rituals and times went good they would presumably believe it was this being worshiped that they believed played a part in the good fortune. Such as how belief in say a thunderstorm god/goddess which is thought to bring rains for thinks like grains for bread and grasses for livestock, thus the fear of survival probably motivated the conception of gods which were likely born from the animistic idea of spirits (gods are a kind of super spirit), a totemistic belief in guardian spirits (gods are often quite similar to believed guardian spirits and more strongly personified the shamanistic guardian spirits to gods keeping intact the belief a special religious person believed to have access to, and influence in, the believed otherworld of benevolent and malevolent spirits now accompanied with specific deities. While some pagans may have been monotheistic or henotheistic (worship of a single goddess/god yet not denying a possible existence of other deities) most pagan religions express elements that are or could be preserved as in boding a seeming worldview that is pantheistic, polytheistic, shamanistic, totemistic and/or animistic. These early paganistic believers being fairly new polytheistic believers where most likely utilizing trances, singing and dances as accompanying ritual practices thought honor and appease these guardian spirit gods. To me, primal early superstition starts around 1 million years ago with. Then the development of religion increased around 600,000 years ago with proto superstition and then even to a greater extent around 300,000 years ago with progressed superstition. Around 100,000 years ago, is the primal stage of early religion, the proto stage of religion is around 75,000 years ago, or less, the progressed stage of early religion is around 50,000 years ago and finally after 13,500 years ago, begins with the evolution of organized religion. The set of stages for the development of organized religion is subdivided into the following: the primal stage of early organized religion is 13,000 years ago, the proto stage of organized religion is around 10,000 years ago, and finally the progressed stage of organized religion is around 7,000 years ago with the forming of mythology and its connected set of Dogmatic-Propaganda-Closure belief strains of sacralized superstitionism. In the stage of organized religion, one important aspect that is often overlooked because of male only thinking or by some over emphasized because of extreme feminism is gender. There are some obvious gender associations in artifacts and possible gender involved religious beliefs but thoughtful feminist archaeologists do not pounce on every representation of a woman and pronounce that it is a goddess. Around 5,000 years ago elements seem to be grouping together with its connected set of Dogmatic-Propaganda-Closure belief strains of sacralized superstitionism that took different forms of behavior in different areas of the world.

Neanderthals may have transmitted “Primal Religion” (Animism)
or at least burial and thoughts of an afterlife.
143,000 – 120,000 Years Ago – Tabun Cave (Israel), found evidence of a Neanderthal-type burial of an archaic type of human female. There is some evidence of burial in Skhul Cave 130,000 – 100,000 which may be Neanderthal humans hybrids, thought early modern humans started engaging in burial around 100,000 years ago. So one should wonder did Neanderthals teach humans religion or at least ritual burial around 120,000 – 100,000 years ago? I think maybe it seems to possibly be the case by 100,000 years ago, but this is just my speculation of somewhat loose but interesting evidence. Burial seems to have been and is now certainly evidence of some concern about what happened when someone died perhaps even proof of a belief that would be one of the key tenets of most religions of the world today, which is life after this one. 100,000 Years Ago – Qafzeh cave (Israel), found burial site of 15 early modern humans stained with red ochre and grave goods, 71 pieces of red ocher, and red ocher-stained stone tools near the bones suggest ritual or symbolic use, as well as sea shells with traces of being strung, and a few also had ochre stains which may also suggest ritual or symbolic use. Likewise, a wild boar jaw found placed in the arms of one of the skeletons. Only after 100,000 years ago modern human burials become more frequent. Could this seemingly new practice of barrel among early modern humans with the use of red ochre be in some way connected or influenced by the meeting, interbreeding and possible idea sharing with the Neanderthal ancestors of the Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains of Central Asia around 100,000 years ago possibly in the Near East, maybe even in Israel or some other part of the with the levant? Well to me it sounds like a real possibility that Neanderthals may have directly taught or indirectly been observed thus in a way are responsible candidates for possibly teaching humans the beginnings of religion, or at least superstitionism/supernaturalism seen in the act of doing burial and the ritual and seemingly sacralized use of red ocher around 100,000 years ago. This thinking Neanderthals Primal Religion could have come first is supported in how 250,000 years ago Neanderthals used red ochre and 230,000 years ago shows evidence of Neanderthal burial with grave goods and possibly a belief in the afterlife.

Religion Power and the State

The Pharaoh in ancient Egypt was the political and religious leader holding the titles ‘Lord of the Two Lands’ Upper and Lower Egypt and ‘High Priest of Every Temple’. In 5,150 years ago the First Dynasty appeared in Egypt and this reign was thought to be in accordance with the will of the gods; but the office of the king itself was not associated with the divine until later. Around 4,890 years ago during the Second Dynasty the King was linked with the divine and reign with the will of the gods. Following this rulers of the later dynasties were equated with the gods and with the duties and obligations due those gods. As supreme ruler of the people, the pharaoh was considered a god on earth, the intermediary between the gods and the people, and when he died, he was thought to become Osiris, the god of the dead. As such, in his role of ‘High Priest of Every Temple’, it was the pharaoh’s duty to build great temples and monuments celebrating his own achievements and paying homage to the gods of the land. Among the earliest civilizations that exhibit the phenomenon of divinized kings are early Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. In 5,150 BCE the First Dynasty appeared in Egypt with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by the king Menes (now believed to be Narmer). Menes/Narmer is depicted on inscriptions wearing the two crowns of Egypt, signifying unification, and his reign was thought to be in accordance with the will of the gods; but the office of the king itself was not associated with the divine until later. During the Second Dynasty of Egypt 4,890-4,670 years ago King Raneb (also known as Nebra) linked his name with the divine and his reign with the will of the gods. Following Raneb, the rulers of the later dynasties were equated with the gods and with the duties and obligations due those gods. As supreme ruler of the people, the pharaoh was considered a god on earth. The honorific title of `pharaoh’ for a ruler did not appear until the period known as the New Kingdom 3,570-3,069 years ago. Monarchs of the dynasties before the title of `pharaoh’ from the New Kingdom were addressed as `your majesty’ by foreign dignitaries and members of the court and as `brother’ by foreign rulers; both practices would continue after the king of Egypt came to be known as a pharaoh. Possibly around 5,000 the First Dynasty appeared in Mesopotamia was Dynasty of Kish and Etana a Sumerian king. According to the Sumerian king list, he resigned after the deluge great flood of Gilgamesh. However, the earliest monarch on the Sumerian king list whose historical existence has been attested through archaeological inscription is En-me-barage-si of Kish 4,600 years ago, said to have defeated Elam and built the temple of Enlil in Nippur. The first Mesopotamian ruler who declared himself divine was Naram-Sin of Akkad. Naram-Sin means “Beloved of Sin”; reigned 4,254–4,218 years ago, was a ruler of the Akkadian Empire, the third successor and grandson of King Sargon of Akkad. Under Naram-Sin the empire reached its maximum strength. After Naram-Sin no ruler declared himself divine until about 4,095–4,049, the second king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, took up the custom of self-deification once more. His self-deification may have been viewed in attempts to consolidate the empire he had inherited from his father. The cult of the divine ruler seems to have culminated under Shu-Sin and after Shu-Sin the divinization kings was abandoned once more. Although, some consider the kings Rim-Sin 3,822–3,763 years ago and the famous Hammurabi of Babylon 3,792–3,750 years ago to have been divine. Both kings struggled to expand their area of influence, and therefore their self-deification may have been part of a strategy to consolidate and legitimize their powers.


What is in the term “religion?”
 When some anthropologists or archaeologists use the term “religion,” they usually do so in a broadly inclusive manner and I often do the same. The one question between religion and cultural relationships is one of whether various people distinguish between the natural and supernatural claims or beliefs. Though some groups may not distinguish between natural and supernatural realms or that they regard spirits as a part of the “natural” world, I still consider all not scientifically real things in the natural world to be supernatural claims. If religion is relatively found in all human societies today, to some extent answering if this was always so has been answered in the previous chapter. Religion, as we think of it now, was not always there but has evolved greatly and it would seem from its earliest point there was a common theme involving some sort of distinction between the natural and the supernatural. Although, not always developed, the distinction between the natural and the supernatural is there to a point, even if they wish to blur the lines. In religion, as it is today, a distinction between natural and supernatural may be limited or not there at all and wishing to add credibility to cultural or religious believed supernatural claims. Religion is a created belief information product that seems to contain some amount or kind of faith in supernatural, non-natural, beyond natural, or outside of natural: agency, causes, powers, beings, or other worlds.

Religion Progression
 
1. Animism (belief in a perceived spirit world) passably by at least 100,000 years ago “the primal stage of early religion”
 
2. Totemism (belief that these perceived spirits could be managed with created physical expressions) passably by at least 50,000 years ago “progressed stage of early religion”
 
3. Shamanism (belief that some special person can commune with these perceived spirits on the behalf of others by way rituals) passably by at least 30,000 years ago
 
4. Paganism “Early organized religion” (passably by at least 13,000 to 5,000 years ago):
 
*primal stage of organized religion is 13,000 years ago.
 
*proto stage of organized religion is around 10,000 years ago.
 
*progressed stage of organized religion is around 7,000 years ago.
 
*developed stage of organized religion is around 5,000 years ago.
 
Therefore, let me sum it all up from its earliest beginnings:
 
*Primal superstition starts around 1 million years ago with. Then the development of religion increased around 600,000 years ago with proto superstition and then even to a greater extent around 300,000 years ago with progressed superstition.
 
Around 100,000 years ago, is the primal stage of early religion, the proto stage of early religion is around 75,000 years ago, or less, the progressed stage of early religion is around 50,000 years ago and finally after 13,500 years ago, begins with the evolution of organized religion. The set of stages for the development of organized religion is subdivided into the following: the primal stage of organized religion is 13,000 years ago, the proto stage of organized religion is around 10,000 years ago, and finally the progressed stage of organized religion is around 7,000 years ago with the forming of mythology and its connected set of Dogmatic-Propaganda-Closure belief strains of sacralized superstitionism. I will now give offer my rough outlined four stage hypotheses, which use the reference of a house, in order to help to explain way how that house (modern religions) fully developed packet of wishful thinking nonsense, in order to assist in grasping the relative big picture of both the origin elements that are involved in what often became a variety of nonrealism/unrealistic faiths or beliefs around the world. Moreover, this relative compiled set of nonrealism faith or belief components (animism, totemism, and paganism) are often still found in almost all religions today. My hypothesis with an explanation of this house (modern religions development).
  1. First, there is the foundation: Superstitionism and Symbolism/Ritualism.
  2. Second, is the frame and walls: Supernaturalism and Sacralizism/Spiritualism.
  3. Third, is the roof and finishing elements of the structure: Dogmatism and Myths.
  4. Fourth, is the window dressing and stylings to the house: decorated with the webs religious Dogmatic-Propaganda.

In the stage of organized religion, one important aspect that is often overlooked because of male only thinking or by some over emphasized because of extreme feminism is gender. There are some obvious gender associations in artifacts and possible gender involved religious beliefs but thoughtful feminist archaeologists do not pounce on every representation of a woman and pronounce that it is a goddess. Around 5,000 years ago there are the full elements seem to be grouping together with its connected set of Dogmatic-Propaganda-Closure belief strains of sacralized superstitionism that took different forms of behavior in different areas of the world.

 By Damien Marie AtHope

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