Welcome to My Blog

Virtue, Kindness, and Human flourishing?

Virtue, Kindness, and Human flourishing? “As an Axiological Atheist, I wish for Human flourishing so I value Kindness”   Eudaimonia (commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, “human flourishing” is likely more accurate. It is a central concept in Aristotelian ethics and political philosophy, along with the terms “virtue” or “excellence”, and “practical or ethical wisdom”. In Aristotle’s works, eudaimonia was (based on older Greek tradition) used as the term for the highest human good, and so it is the aim of practical philosophy, including ethics and political philosophy, to consider (and also experience) what it really is, and how it can be achieved. One of the central concerns of ancient ethics involved discussion of the links between virtue of character and happiness (eudaimonia). As with all other ancient ethical thinkers Socrates thought that all human beings wanted eudaimonia more than anything else. seems to have thought that virtue is both necessary and sufficient for eudaimonia. Socrates is convinced that virtues such as self-control, courage, justice, piety, wisdom and related qualities of mind and soul are absolutely crucial if a person is to lead a good and happy (eudaimon) life. Virtues guarantee a happy life eudaimonia. For example, in the Meno, with respect to wisdom, he says: “everything the soul endeavours or endures under the guidance of wisdom ends in happiness” Ref   I agree in a general way with Socrates, that “human flourishing” (eudaimonia) and the standard of virtues, such as self-control, courage, justice, kindness, wisdom and related qualities of mind and inner self are absolutely crucial if a person is to lead a good and happy life....

gOD Believer, Pease Think Critically

gOD Believer, Pease Think Critically   If you are a believer think critically, it is not the one deity you see as possible without evidence but to notice how many gods or goddesses you reject as impossible without evidence. What kind of thinker can believe that rationally? There are literally thousands of religions being practiced today and many others once were once thought true in history just to be reworked or rejected.   Here are 20 of the most popular, along with an estimate of the number of followers: Christianity: 2.1 billion, Islam: 1.3 billion, Hinduism: 900 million, Chinese traditional religion: 394 million, Buddhism: 376 million, African Traditional & Diasporic: 100 million, Sikhism: 23 million, Juche (a.k.a. Chuch’e and Kimilsungism): 19 million, Spiritism: 15 million, Judaism: 14 million, Baha’i: 7 million, Jainism: 4.2 million, Shinto: 4 million, Cao Dai: 4 million, Zoroastrianism: 2.6 million, Tenrikyo: 2 million, Neo-Paganism: 1 million, Unitarian-Universalism: 800 thousand, Rastafarianism: 600 thousand, Scientology: 500 thousand, [Source: Encyclopedia Britannica]   If you can believe only in a possible God of Christianity, you have chosen to reject Allah, Vishnu, Lord Buddha, Waheguru, Ngame, Isis, Kali, Brigid, Kuan Yin, Europa, Aphrodite, Amaterasu, Aurora, Chicomecoatl, Ishtar, Antares, and all of the thousands of other gods or goddess that other people worship today or once held faith in. It is quite likely that you rejected these other gods or goddesses without ever looking into their history, religions, reading or even learning about them. You may not even know some of the names listed or have heard much about them or the thousands of other deities and mythical beings people now...

Archaeology Knowledge Challenge?

Archaeology Challenge?   “Damien, there is a need to dig a Little Deeper than the culture in Turkey because technically Iraq civilization goes back further than turkey’s. But Australia’s culture is almost three times older dating back over 30,000 years. It is true that göbeklitepe is the oldest in the region but it is by far not the oldest civilization on the planet.” Challenger   Thanks for your response and I have been digging deeper for like three to four years. So, here is what I have found in response to your statements, Australia aborigines never truly left the stone age until colonization so no they did not have any advance culture like that of turkey and no Iraq civilization is not older at all. There is evidence of a single “Out of Africa” migration event around 72,000 years ago and of population spread which provided a basis for the modern Aboriginal cultural landscape dating back about 50,000 years. Interesting enough a stone snake monument from South Africa provides evidence of the “first human worship” 70,000 years ago. And while Iraq is technically at the originations of religious statism around 5,000 years ago even Egypt is a seemingly a little older 5,150 years ago in that endeavor but it is possible that Egypt too, has ancient connections to Turkey as well. So, sorry but not Iraq civilization could be connected as Sumerian loanwords seem to originate in or connect in some way with turkey which was the origination of farming starts then from there spread out to other parts of the world including Europe’s first farmers who came from...

12,400 – 11,700 Years Ago – Kortik Tepe (Turkey) Pre/early-Agriculture Cultic Ritualism

12,400 – 11,700 Years Ago – Kortik Tepe (Turkey) found mound structures, tombs and grave goods as well as ritual art, demonstrating examples of the symbolic bee carved stone ritual objects possibly represents a mythic creature(s). Ritualistic behavior is also found on the bones of ten individuals who exhibit cut marks that seem to indicate deflating along with application of plaster and paint as part of the burial customs has been interpreted by some as corpse purification possibly to help the desist pass to the afterlife. Back to animal veneration, the specific bee idol motif appears early at Hallan Cemi, in southeastern Turkey. Each phase at Kortik Tepe which is also in southeastern Turkey, includes common religio-cultural features particularly true with the burial rites and grave goods. Similar structures are known at Hallan Çemi, Demirköy in northwest Turkey and the earliest layers of Çayonu in southeastern Turkey. Kortik Tepe is similar to Demirköy and other sites along the Batman River, which is a major tributary of the Tigris River, in southeast Turkey.  Kortik Tepe demonstrated changing mortuary practices as time progressed, going from barring people outside the village to inside the village or structures, showing difference but still holding a shared cultural transfer. Even more interesting is how Hallan Cemi, burials of the dead are not found in the site at all, so perhaps a they used a cemetery nearby, which is what happened with Zawi Chemi in northern Iraq, who used a cemetery nearby with 28 burials, 26 of which were associated with a stone platform and existed contemporary Levantine Natufian sites. The Zawi Chemi site had evidence...

Epistemically Rational with Beliefs?

Which is more epistemically rational? Believing that which by lack of evidence could be false or disbelieving that which by insufficient evidence could be true?  Incapable of making a decision on if there is or not a god? Bigfoots, Unicorns, and Gods? “Epistemic rationality is part of rationality involving, achieving accurate beliefs about the world. It involves updating on receiving new evidence, mitigating cognitive biases, and examining why you believe what you believe.” Ref Being Epistemically Rational Knowledge without Belief? Justified beliefs or disbeliefs worthy of Knowledge? Justifying Judgments: Possibility and Epistemic Utility theory To me the choice is to use the “Ethics of Belief” and thus the more rational approach one would be more motivated is to disbelieve, rather than “Believing that which by lack of evidence could be false”, otherwise you would accept any statement or claim as true no matter how at odds with other verified facts. The ethics of belief refers to a cluster of related issues that focus on standards of rational belief, intellectual excellence, and conscientious belief-formation as well as norms of some sort governing our habits of belief-formation, belief-maintenance, and belief-relinquishment. Contemporary discussions of the ethics of belief stem largely from a famous nineteenth-century exchange between the British mathematician and philosopher W. K. Clifford and the American philosopher William James. . In 1877 Clifford published an article titled “The Ethics of Belief” in a journal called Contemporary Review. There Clifford argued for a strict form of evidentialism that he summed up in a famous dictum: “It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone to believe anything on insufficient evidence.” As Clifford saw it,...

Justifying Judgments: Possibility and Epistemic Utility theory

Justifying Judgments: Possibility and Epistemic Utility theory The Rationalist Desire for Epistemically Credible Thinking   As a rationalist when I debate or challenge a position or thinking I want the epistemically provable truth, as I am not only closed to my own ideas, rather, I am just as will to adapt my position if given strong warrant or justification supported by valid and reliable reason and evidence with epistemic credibility. “Incorporating a prediction into future planning and decision making is advisable only if we have judged the prediction’s credibility. This is notoriously difficult and controversial in the case of predictions of future climate. By reviewing epistemic arguments about climate model performance, we discuss how to make and justify judgments about the credibility of climate predictions. Possibly proposing arguments that justify basing some judgments on the past performance of possibly dissimilar prediction problems. This encourages a more explicit use of data in making quantitative judgments about the credibility of future climate predictions, and in training users of climate predictions to become better judges of value, goodness, credibility, accuracy, worth or usefulness.” Ref Normative Theories of Rational Choice: Expected Utility  Rational Choice in a Normative Theory of Expected Utility = Utility (the axiology: value, goodness, credibility, accuracy, worth or usefulness) Theory. “a theory of how people should rationally make decisions”   According to Rachael Briggs at The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the expected utility of an act is a weighted average of the utilities of each of its possible outcomes, where the utility of an outcome measures the extent to which that outcome is preferred, or preferable, to the alternatives. The...