Shamanism: an approximately 30,000-year-old belief system

Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are: intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. A shaman is someone who is regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who typically enters into a trance state during a ritual, and practices divination and healing. The word “shaman” probably originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen, “the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms” such as Negidal, Lamut, Udehe/Orochi, Nanai, Ilcha, Orok, Manchu and Ulcha, and “nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning ‘shaman’ also derives from Proto-Tungusic” and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia. The term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552. The term “shamanism” was first applied by Western anthropologists as outside observers of the ancient religion of the Turks and Mongols, as well as those of the neighbouring Tungusic and Samoyedic-speaking peoples. Upon observing more religious traditions across the world, some Western anthropologists began to also use the term in a very broad sense, to describe unrelated magico-religious practices found within the ethnic religions of other parts of Asia, Africa, Australasia and even completely unrelated parts of the Americas, as they believed these practices to be similar to one another. Mircea Eliade writes, “A first definition of this complex phenomenon, and perhaps the least hazardous, will be: shamanism = ‘technique of religious ecstasy‘.” Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness. The shaman also enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions...

No “dinosaurs and humans didn’t exist together just because some think they are in the bible itself”

While the earth is about 4.54 billion years old and the first life dates to at least 3.5 billion years ago, the first primates did not appear until around 50-55 million years ago. But by 50 million years ago, dinosaurs were extinct from the Earth. Continental fragments collided, pushing up mountain ranges still existing today. The collision of Africa into Europe gave rise to the Alps in Europe, and the collision of India into Asia formed the Himalaya. Birds and mammals began to expand in number and diversity. Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55 million years ago. Within the Hominoidea (apes) superfamily, the Hominidae family diverged from the Hylobatidae (gibbon) family some 15–20 million years ago; African great apes (subfamily Homininae) diverged from orangutans (Ponginae) about 14 million years ago; the Hominini tribe (humans, Australopithecines and other extinct biped genera, and chimpanzee) parted from the Gorillini tribe (gorillas) between 9 million years ago and 8 million years ago; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina (humans and biped ancestors) and Panina (chimps) separated about 7.5 million years ago to 5.6 million years ago and humans are around 200,000 years ago. ref, ref, ref “But Damien they are in Job 40:15–24, Ezekiel 29:3, Isaiah 27:1, Psalm 74:13-14, Job 41:1–34.” – challenger My response, Job 40:15-24 is not a reality statement it is a fantasy about a volcano. “Look at Behemoth, which I made along with you and which feeds on grass like an ox. 16 What strength it has...

When was the beginning: TIMELINE OF RELIGIONS

“ISLAM IS THE OLDEST RELIGION IN THE WORLD.” Claimer (a post that was posted in the Facebook group: Atheist vs Theist Debates w/o Bans or Blocking and that inspired this blog) My response, Islam’s beginning is no way older than 610 CE or 2,017 years ago and Religion Progression:   1. Animism (belief in a perceived spirit world) possibly by at least 100,000 years ago “the primal stage of early religion” 2. Totemism (belief that these perceived spirits could be managed with created physical expressions) possibly by at least 50,000 years ago “progressed stage of early religion” 3. Shamanism (belief that some special person can commune with these perceived spirits on the behalf of others by way rituals) possibly by at least 30,000 years ago 4. Paganism “Early organized nature-based religion” mainly like an evolved shamanism with gods (possibly by at least 13,000 years ago). 5. Institutional religion “organized religion” as a social institution with official dogma usually set in a hierarchical/bureaucratic structure that contains strict rules and practices dominating the believer’s life. And to me paganism and Institutional religion categorized into the following stages:  *primal stage of organized religion is 13,000 years ago. *proto stage of organized religion is around 10,000 years ago. *progressed stage of organized religion is around 7,000 years ago. *developed stage of organized “Institutional” religion is around 5,000 years ago.   “Sikhism is much older than Islam.” – Commenter   My response, Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469 – 1539) and Islam is based on the spiritual teachings of Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632). So Islam...

Freedom of Religion, not Coercive Hereditary Religion

Freedom of Religion, not Coercive Hereditary Religion I am for letting kids decide their stance on religions for themselves. And as children can’t think without magical explanations until around 7 years old, it must be after then but I would like 18 years old before they feel they actually are choosing to freely decide or at least after reaching a teenage as is the standard in the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution which prohibits states and the federal government from denying the right to vote once a citizen reaches 18 years old. I think that both the issue of age of intellectual consent ability and the self-directed right of a child to make this choice freely is also an important child rights issue in both freedoms of speech and a citizen’s self-chosen right to religious liberty choices in the freedom of religion issue. Moreover, in the United States, freedom of religion is a constitutionally protected right provided in the religion clauses of the First Amendment. So too religious civil liberties are guaranteed by the First Amendment is being violated when a parent is using force indoctrination on a child. removing the child’s right to freely choose or choose not to have a religion at all, as should be guaranteed them as an American citizen of the United States and generally speaking by being born in the United States or one of its territories the “acquisition” of citizenship has occurred thus one is a legal citizen at birth thus rights are deserved from birth, not after one leaves a parent as a young adult after 18 years old....

Ziggurats (multi-platform temples: 4,900 years old) to Pyramids (multi-platform tombs: 4,700 years old)

Ziggurats (multi-platform temples around 4,900 years ago; likely emerging from Tell al-`Ubaid)  Pyramids (multi-platform tombs around 4,700 years ago; likely emerging from Gisr el-Mudir) Ziggurats (multi-platform temples: 4,900 years old) Mesopotamians revolved around their gods and so, naturally, the homes of the gods on earth: the temples. During the Ubaid Period (7,000 to 6,000 years ago), the movement towards urbanization began, based upon the analysis of grave goods, was one of increasingly polarised social stratification and decreasing egalitarianism, which has been described as a phase of “Trans-egalitarian” competitive households, in which some fall behind as a result of downward social mobility. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that Ubaid culture saw the rise of an elite class of hereditary chieftains, perhaps heads of kin groups linked in some way to the administration of the temple shrines and their granaries, responsible for mediating intra-group conflict and maintaining social order. a temple to Ninhursag, a Sumerian mother goddess. Like the temple at Kafahje, this too was surrounded by an oval-shaped enclosure wall. Tell al-‘Ubaid a low, relatively small tell (settlement mound) site of a prosperous Sumerian town lying on the Euphrates River about 4 miles northwest of the larger nearby city of Ur in southern Iraq‘s Dhi Qar Governorate. The majority of the remains are from the Ubaid period, for which Tell al-‘Ubaid is the type site, with an Early Dynastic temple at the highest point. The Early Dynastic temple is located on the northern edge of the site. The temple of Ninhursag goddess of childbirth and divine protector of wild animals. Erected in a time when the Sumerian cities were nearing their height of power and influence, the temple featured eight large copper-sheathed lions guarding its entrance. The insides of the structure were decorated with elegant reliefs inlaid...

New Mutualism

New Mutualism “We are stronger as one than alone and thus we rise by helping each other.” Mutualism extremely common, widespread in nature “The benefit of mutualism increases with decreased resource availability. Mutualism often found in stressed habitats (In favorable environments, by contrast, species can make it on their own, without expending energy on behalf of mutualist). Human agriculture is mutualistic in nature. Many mutualisms have co-evolved. Mutualism ranges from facultative to obligate. Model of mutualism, based on a Logistic model, helps explain some aspects of mutualism, but does not really explain when they are stable; obligate mutualism should be less stable than facultative, according to theory. A review of the natural history of mutualism indicates a variety of factors that will make models more realistic: consumer-resource dynamics, tradeoffs, habitat stress.” ref According to Sara Horowitz in an article titled, “What is New Mutualism?” that it’s the little choices that matter. “Do you set up your own home office or join a co-working community? Shop at a chain grocery store or a local food co-op? Bank or credit union? We all face these decisions every day. The choice is deceptively simple — go it alone or build something together. Building together always ends up better. That’s the biggest lesson I’ve learned from freelancers — your network is everything. The most successful independent workers are the ones who know you need people to turn to when you’re in a dry spell, or you’re overloaded with work, or you just need some advice. It’s that simple idea — we are stronger together than we are alone — that’s at the heart of our vision of the new economy. And millions of freelancers are already...