I do believe much of gender is developed in or because of social construct or external social pressures. But there are definitely biological realities to gender identity. We know it’s both nature and nurture involved in fixing gender; people are born into several different variations ranging from full female which is the default for humans then several variations of intersex female to the middle where there in full intersex then starts the various versions of intersex male until you get to full male.
. Woman / Female
. Man / Male
. Dismissing Attachment
. Anxious Attachment
. Secure Attachment
Gender Identity: Unlike biological sex—which is assigned at birth and based on physical characteristics—gender identity refers to a person’s innate, deeply felt sense of being male or female (sometimes even both or neither). While it is most common for a person’s gender identity to align with their biological sex, this is not always the case. A person’s gender identity can be different from their biological sex. Increased societal understanding and scientific research exploring the origins of gender are serving to expand formerly simplistic societal notions of limited gender categorization. Gender identity and other recently defined terms are ones that are more inclusive of these normal variations of gender. Because gender identity is internal and not always visible to others, it is something determined by the individual alone. Gender Variance/Gender Non-Conformity: Gender variance refers to behaviors and interests that fit outside of what we consider ‘normal’ for a child or adult’s assigned biological sex. We think of these people as having interests that are more typical of the “opposite” sex; in children, for example, a girl who insists on having short hair and prefers to play football with the boys, or a boy who wears dresses and wishes to be a princess. These are considered gender-variant or gender non-conforming behaviors and interests. It should be noted that gender nonconformity is a term not typically applied to children who have only a brief, passing curiosity in trying out these behaviors or interests. Gender “Non-Conformity” can be defined most simply as behavior and appearance that conforms to the social expectations for one’s assigned or believed/preserved gender. Gender non-conformity, then, is behaving and appearing in ways that are considered not typical for one’s gender. Gender non-conformity should not be confused sexual orientation. Gender nonconforming people are often assumed to also be lesbian, gay, or bisexual, etc. while gender conforming people are assumed to be heterosexual do to believed heteronormativity which can relate to heterocentricism. heteronormativity/heterocentricism assumes heterosexual unless something, like gender non-conformity, makes one think otherwise. Researchers have noted that there may be real differences in terms of gender between lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual, and heterosexual people. In particular, there are higher rates of gender non-conformity in both childhood and adulthood among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and pansexual people than among heterosexual people. Nevertheless, it is important to note that gender non-conformity is not universal among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and pansexual people, nor is it absent among heterosexuals.
Transgender refers to an individual whose gender identity does not match their assigned birth sex. For example, a transgender person may self-identify as a woman but was born biologically male. Being transgender does not imply any specific sexual orientation (attraction to people of a specific gender). Therefore, transgender people may additionally identify as straight, gay, lesbian, or bisexual. In its broadest sense, the term transgender can encompass anyone whose identity or behavior falls outside of stereotypical gender norms. Science has Proved That Being Transgender Is Not a Phase. Our culture is undeniably uneducated about transgender individuals. At worst, this ignorance results in violent hate crimes and murders. In its most benevolent form, transgenderism is viewed as a “phase” or transgender individuals are regarded as “confused.” A new study, however, pushes back on these misconceptions by finding that transgender children identify with their gender identity as consistently as their cisgender peers. The study’s findings support what trans advocates have been saying for years: Being transgender is not a phase or a choice, but a consistent gender identity. The study indicated that transgender children’s responses were indistinguishable from the two groups of cisgender children, suggesting that trans and cisgender children identify with their gender in the same consistent ways.
Gender Fluidity conveys a wider, more flexible range of gender expression, with interests and behaviors that may even change from day to day. Gender fluid people do not feel confined by restrictive boundaries of stereotypical expectations of women and men. For some people, gender fluidity extends beyond behavior and interests, and actually serves to specifically define their gender identity. In other words, a person may feel they are more female on some days and more male on others, or possibly feel that neither term describes them accurately. Their identity is seen as being gender fluid.
Genderqueer is a term that is growing in usage, representing a blurring of the lines surrounding society’s rigid views of both gender identity and sexual orientation. Genderqueer people embrace a fluidity of gender expression that is not limiting. They may not identify as male or female, but as both, neither, or as a blend. Similarly, genderqueer is a more inclusive term with respect to sexual orientation. It does not limit a person to identifying strictly as heterosexual or homosexual. (Note: This term is NOT typically used in connection with gender identity in pre-adolescent children).
Bigender, bi-gender or dual gender is a gender identity where the person moves between feminine and masculine gender identities and behaviors, possibly depending on context.
Non-Binary gender is an umbrella term covering any gender identity that doesn’t fit within the gender binary. The label may also be used by individuals wishing to identify as falling outside of the gender binary without being any more specific about the nature of their gender.
Gender Identity has a broader historical connections such as how early humans became more feminine, which led to the birth of culture. The first is an analysis of fossilized skulls of our ancestors has found that brow ridges became significantly less prominent and male facial shape became more similar to that of females. They referred to this as craniofacial feminization, meaning that as Homo sapiens slimmed down their skulls became flatter and more “feminine” in shape. It is proposed that what happened were lower levels of testosterone, as there is a strong relationship between levels of this hormone and long faces with extended brow ridges, which we may perceive today as very “masculine” features. The other large effect lower levels of testosterone impart is individuals are less likely to be violent and have enhanced social tolerance. This feminization through self-domestication may not only have made humans more peaceful and evenly sized, but may have also produced a more sexually equal society. A recent study showed that in hunter-gatherer groups in the Congo and the Philippines decisions about where to live and with whom were made equally by both genders. Despite living in small communities, this resulted in hunter-gatherers living with a large number of individuals with whom they had no kinship ties. Thus, the argument is that this may have proved an evolutionary advantage for early human societies who became more feminine, as it would have fostered wider-ranging social networks and closer cooperation between unrelated individuals. The frequent movement and interaction between groups also fostered the sharing of innovations, which may have helped the spread of culture.
The Experience of “Being In Love” Is Not The Same For Everyone and Not everyone experiences love in exactly the same manner. Research has shown that love comes in several different forms or styles (see Lee and Regan). For the most part, people experience love as a blend of two or three of the styles listed below. Essentially, people have different notions of what it means to “be in love.” Overall, when thinking about love and relationships, sometimes it helps to keep in mind that love does not always mean the same thing to everyone.
Styles of love identity: Dismissing Attachment, Anxious Attachment & Secure Attachment
Ludus is linked to Dismissing Attachment
Ludus – some people experience love as a game to be played with other people’s emotions. The goal or desire is to gain control over a partner through manipulation. People who experience love as Ludus like to have multiple love interests where they are in complete control. Lying, cheating and deception are common for people who experience love as Ludus – it’s all part of the game. For people who experience love as Ludus, it is satisfying to outwit a partner and exploit his or her weak spots.
Mania is linked to Anxious Attachment
Mania – some people experience love as being out of control. Love is an overwhelming experience; it turns one’s life upside down and it results in a complete loss of one’s identity. Love based on Mania is crazy, impulsive and needy. People who experience love as Mania fall in love quickly, but their love tends to consume them. Love experienced as Mania also tends to burnout before it gets the chance to mature. Such love is often marked by extreme delusions, feelings of being out of control, rash decisions, and vulnerability. People who experience love as Mania are easily taken advantage of by people who experience love as Ludus.
Eros and Agape are linked to Secure Attachment
Eros – some people experience love with a lot of passion, intimacy and intensity. Love based on Eros has a strong sexual and emotional component. People who experience love this way want to be emotionally and physically close to their romantic partners and they tend to idealize love. Such love is marked by passion as well as compassion (kindness and consideration). Eros is best viewed as romantic, passionate love – the type of love that creates excitement at the beginning of a new relationship.
Agape – some people experience love as care giving. Love is the overwhelming desire to want to take care of a partner – a parental or nurturing type of love. Love based on Agape is attentive, caring, compassionate and kind – a more altruistic or selfless type of love.
Two other styles of love
Storge – some people experience love as a gradual and slow process. When love is based on Storge, getting to know someone comes before having intense feelings for that person. Love based on Storge takes time, it requires genuine liking and understanding of a partner, and it develops slowly over time. Love based on Storge is often compared to the love that one has for a friend. In fact, people who experience love as Storge often fall in love with their friends.
Pragma – some people take a practical approach to love. Love is not crazy, intense, or out of control. Love is based on common sense and reason. People who experience love as Pragma tend to pick a suitable mate the way most other people make serious life decisions: picking a partner is based on careful consideration and reason. Practical concerns underlie this type of love.
Gender Expression: In contrast to gender identity, gender expression is external and is based on individual and societal conceptions and expectations. It encompasses everything that communicates our gender to others: clothing, hairstyles, body language, mannerisms, how we speak, how we play, and our social interactions and roles. Most people have some blend of masculine and feminine qualities that comprise their gender expression, and this expression can also vary depending on the social context i.e.; attire worn at work rather than play, hobbies or interests, etc. Color is a cue that effects how people interact with a child. The response of others to gender-specific colors of attire encourage what is socially designated as gender-appropriate behavior by that child. Stone observed that dressing a newborn in either blue or pink in America begins a series of interactions. Norms governing gender-appropriate attire are powerful. Gender-specific attire enhances the internalization of expectations for gender-specific behavior. Through the subtle and frequently nonverbal interactions with children regarding both their appearance and behavior, parents either encourage or discourage certain behaviors often related to dress that lead to a child’s development of their gender identity. When a boy decides he wants to play dress-up in skirts or makeup or a daughter chooses to play aggressive sports only with the boys, it would not be surprising to find the parents redirecting the child’s behavior into a more socially “acceptable” and gender-specific activity. Even the most liberal and open-minded parents can be threatened by their child not conforming to appropriate gender behaviors. Research has shown that children as young as two years of age classify people into gender categories based on their appearance. A person or behavior that deviates from these scripts of gender can be defined as unnatural or pathological.
A few points about Being Non-Binary can be expressed, such as its okay for Androgynous/Non-Binary people to live as their assigned gender when or as long as it suits them. It’s okay if they realizing that they don’t fit into the gender boxes marked ‘male’ or ‘female’ and do absolutely nothing about it. It is completely, one-hundred-percent acceptable to know you are non-binary and do absolutely nothing about it. You are not obliged to appear androgynous as such you have your whole life to work out your gender identity.
The only clues we have of paleolithic trans individuals would be by considering the societies of aboriginal peoples still living with stone age technologies. The few left remaining on the earth, in the rain forests of South America, or the remaining unspoiled lands of Africa, all have reverential positions for the transsexuals that are born to them. In such societies, trans individuals are considered magical, kin to the gods or spirits, and possessed of shamanic powers. Almost every society in history has had some name, role, or way of relating to non-heteronormativity and/or trans individuals from ancient Mesopotamia, Canaan and Turkey to India, even to the present day. Some scholars assert that her role in myths as a gender transgressor, as a woman in a man’s lifestyle, she outrageously crossed gender boundaries and was used to support this in others. Inanna’s myths and her professional cult personnel may have offered a safe ideological and social space for those crossing gender and sexuality roles. This would seem evident given the evidence for same-sex behavior, transvestism, same-sex ritual, same-sex prostitution, and varying degrees of non-heterononnativity in the larger Mesopotamian culture. In ancient Rome existed the ‘Gallae’, Phrygian worshipers of the Goddess Cybele. Once decided on their choice of gender and religion, physically male Gallae ran through the streets and threw their own severed genitalia into open doorways, as a ritualistic act. The household receiving these remains considered them a great blessing. In return, the household would nurse the Gallae back to health. The Gallae then ceremoniously received female clothes, and assumed a female identity. Commonly, they would be dressed as brides, or in other splendid clothing. In India, ritual practices for transsexual individuals continue to the present day. Called Hijiras, this sect also worship a Goddess, and undergo a primitive sort of sex reassignment surgery. The Hijiras are treated in a rather hypocritical fashion within Indian society however, in that they are both despised and revered at the same time. Hijiras often are paid to attend a bless weddings, and to act as spiritual and social advisers, but are also shunned as less than worthy eunuchs. Yet in other circumstances, such as social situations, they are accorded the status of true females. The Dine, or Navajos of the southwest United States, recognize three sexes instead of only two. For the Dine, there are Males, Females, and Nadles, which are considered somewhat both and neither. While those born intersexed or hermaphroditic are automatically considered Nadle, physically ‘normal’ individuals may define as Nadle based on their own self-definition of gender identity. The Nadle once possessed far greater respect before the Navaho were conquered and their culture all but obliterated by the forced assumption of Catholicism. Among the Sioux, the Winkte served much the same function, and individuals could assume the complete role of their preferred gender. Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature. Winkte would also perform primitive reassignment operations of a sort, and history records the process used by physical males: riding for days on a special hard saddle to crush the testicles and thus effectively castrate the individual. Native American in general usually have what is called Two Spirits which were male, female, and sometimes intersexed individuals who combined activities of both men and women with traits unique to their status as two spirits. In most tribes, they were considered neither men nor women; they occupied a distinct, alternative gender status. In tribes where male and female two spirits were referred to with the same term, this status amounted to a third gender. In other cases, female two spirits were referred to with a distinct term and, therefore, constituted a fourth gender. Although there were important variations in two-spirit roles across North america, they share a some common traits:
Specialized work roles. Male and female two spirits were typically described in terms of their preference for and achievements in the work of the “opposite” sex or in activities specific to their role. Two spirits were experts in traditional arts—such as pottery making, basket weaving, and the manufacture and decoration of items made from leather. Among the Navajo, male two-spirits often became weavers, usually women&srquo;s work, as well as healers, which was a male role. By combining these activities, they were often among the wealthier members of the tribe. Female two spirits engaged in activities such as hunting and warfare, and became leaders in war and even chiefs.
Gender variation. A variety of other traits distinguished two spirits from men and women, including temperament, dress, lifestyle, and social roles.
Spiritual sanction. Two-spirit identity was widely believed to be the result of supernatural intervention in the form of visions or dreams and sanctioned by tribal mythology. In many tribes, two-spirit people filled special religious roles as healers, shamans, and ceremonial leaders.
Same-sex relations. Two spirits typically formed sexual and emotional relationships with non-two-spirit members of their own sex. Male and female two spirits were often sexually active, forming both short- and long-term relationships. Among the Lakota, Mohave, Crow, Cheyenne, and others, two spirits were believed to be lucky in love, and able to bestow this luck on others.
A variety of national stereotypes is part and parcel of popular knowledge. Italians are said to be “volatile,” Germans “hard-working,” the Dutch “clean,” the Swiss “neat,” the English “reserved,” and so on. Prejudice and personal bias may color such accounts, and in the absence of objective evidence it is not easy to distinguish between fact and fiction. However, there is a biological bases to conformity as such humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and natural selection may favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Clothing for both men and women is culturally defined. Cultural norms and expectations are related to the meaning of being a man or woman and are closely linked to appearance. In Indonesia, parts of West Africa, and in traditional Scottish dress, men wear an article of clothing that closely resembles a Western definition of a skirt. In Indonesia, both men and women wear the sarong, a length of cloth wrapped to form a tube. The wrapper, a rectangular cloth tied at the waist, is worn by both sexes in parts of West Africa. The Scottish kilt, still worn at many social gatherings to establish a social and cultural identity, represents the height of masculinity. In North American culture, the sarong, wrapper, or kilt would rarely be seen on men except within the theater, film, or in the context of couture or avant-garde fashion. For example, the grunge style of the early 1990s had fashions for men designed to be worn with skirts. However, there was nothing particularly feminine about these styles; rather, they were purely a fashion statement. One approach to critically analyzing gender and dress is to examine cultural ideals of beauty. In Western culture, a slim waist for women and men is emphasized, along with large breasts and hips for women and broad shoulders and slender hips for men. Greek ideals of beauty are still present in Western culture. The Greek ideal of perfect body proportions has stood the test of time in Western culture. Minoan artifacts, which date from 2900 to 1150 B.C.E., illustrate men and women with extremely tiny waists. Some scholars speculate that this was the result of artistic convention while other authorities suggest that young men around the age of twelve or fourteen wore belts that constricted the waist. There have been periods in history when men adopted the corset to achieve the fashionable silhouette of the time. simple and restricted dress “code” related well to a focus on work and on social, economic, and political accomplishments rather than attention to changes in fashion. Dress (except for the necktie) did not impede physical activity. The negative impact of this uniformity and conformity is that men may dress to conceal aspects of their identity, which is not always true of women. Men’s business attire has been linked to a display of power facilitated by the uniform nature of dress. Uniforms exert a degree of control over those who must carry out the organization’s work, encouraging members to express the ideas and interests of the group rather than their own, thus promoting the group’s ability to perform its tasks. The opportunity for men to relax at work on “casual Fridays” has not released them from burdens of conformity, as they frequently adopt a Gap or Levi’s uniform of polo shirt and khaki pants. This symbolic allegiance to work and career also signals a privileged access to economic and political power in postindustrial society, namely, occupational success. Women’s conservative dress-for-success appearance of the 1980s can be analyzed as an appearance cue that announced women’s intention to ascend the corporate ladder. Women, in contrast, have had a more elaborated fashion code, which meant that they could wear some of what men wore, and a lot more. For example, although men always wear pants, women wear both pants and skirts. They have an unlimited choice of fabrics, colors, design lines, and silhouettes. Women also have worn corsets, tight or flowing skirts, high heels, and nylons that have restricted their freedom of movement. Barry Staw, a researcher at the University of California–Berkeley business school says most people are risk-averse. He refers to them as satisfies. “As much as we celebrate independence in Western cultures, there is an awful lot of pressure to conform.” Barry Staw goes on saying a successful creative person is someone “who can survive conformity pressures and be impervious to social pressure.” To live creatively is a choice. You must make a commitment to your own mind and the possibility that you will not be accepted and this I believe holds some relation to non-conformity styles.
New research finds women are more likely to wear red during periods of high fertility. A study that focuses on hormone levels confirms this dynamic and ties it directly to one’s fertility cycle. Finds that, on days when conception is most likely, that blue dress is likely to stay at the back of the closet, passed over for the power of pink. “It is not entirely clear why red in particular is used to enhance attractiveness,” the researchers concede. But it’s not entirely a mystery, either as many non-human primates display red on some part of their body when they are nearing ovulation. There is good reason to believe the association between the color and enhanced fertility—which sends a signal that this would be a fine time to reproduce—is shared by humans. Scientists are asking one seemingly simple question: Who invented clothes anyway? As straightforward as it sounds, it isn’t easy to answer. We may be used to artistic depictions of prehistoric Homo sapiens and Neanderthals wrapped in furry hides, but, in truth, the story of how clothing became such a prominent mark of humanity is only just starting to be unraveled. Clothing doesn’t readily fossilize. Much like the soft tissues that wrap our bones, fabrics and other body coverings decay rapidly. Yet, despite this, archaeologists and anthropologists are starting to figure out the elements of prehistoric style through an array of indirect evidence that includes everything from dyed plant fibers to lice. The oldest garments archaeologists have found are all relatively young. There are 8,000-year-old bark sandals from Oregon, a shirt and beaded dress made about 5,000 years ago in Egypt, and the clothing of Otzi—the 5,000-year-old “Ice Man”—who wore leather and woven grass shoes, a fur jacket, leather leggings, and even leather underwear. Nevertheless, “if you accept that clothes are pretty delicate things and will be preserved intact extremely rarely, then you can look for other evidence of their presence during more ancient times.” She says that ancient burials, for instance—like a 28,000-year-old Homo sapiens grave in Sungir, Russia—”record the ghosts of garments” in the form of beads and teeth that must have been part of clothing. However, burial wear was not the day-to-day coverings of these people. The record on prehistoric daily wardrobes is sketchy, but to a suite of indirect evidence that people were creating clothing tens of thousands of years ago. Dyed plant fibers—pink, black, and blue—from a 30,000-year-old cave site in the country of Georgia hint at early fabric-making. Delicate, 20,000-year-old bone needles were likely used to create clothing and jewelry. Contrary to artists’ depictions showing prehistoric people in rough furs only, the archaeological record is clear that people were making much more complex clothes by 25,000 years ago. However, there is a study, which found that lice that live on clothing have a genetic trail going back to between 83,000 and 170,000 years ago.
Biological Sex: refers to biological and physical anatomy. Biological sex is used to assign gender at birth. However, many variables can factor into one’s biological sex; for example, a person’s chromosomal or anatomical configurations. These and other factors can combine in such a way as to make biological sex much more complex than two distinct categories. Therefore, the social construct of “Biological Sex” should not be misused to defend Transphobia, Genderqueerphobia, Intersexphobia, Etc. Human behavior is all in the brain but not just in one way. Genes may motivate a desire to appear on the outside how we all feel on the inside. Psychology is an “emergent property” of the brain and the brain is a physical, biological organ; thus, the genes control the development of the brain and the “psychology” or the mind is a product of that biological development. “What they were born with” includes more than the physical. It always falls back on the individual needing to see him or herself appearing more like the gender they are mentally. A growing body of research is pointing to biological origins of many varied characteristics. These statistics approximate gender variance do to sex chromosome. The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that. Sex can be much more complicated than it at first seems. According to the simple scenario, the presence or absence of a Y chromosome is what counts: with it, you are male, and without it, you are female. Nevertheless, doctors have long known that some people straddle the boundary — their sex chromosomes say one thing, but their gonads (ovaries or testes) or sexual anatomy say another. Parents of children with these kinds of conditions — known as intersex conditions, or differences or disorders of sex development often face difficult decisions about whether to bring up their child as a boy or a girl. When genetics is taken into consideration, the boundary between the sexes becomes even blurrier. Scientists have identified many of the genes involved in the main forms of differences or disorders of sex development, and have uncovered variations in these genes that have subtle effects on a person’s anatomical or physiological sex. What’s more, new technologies in DNA sequencing and cell biology are revealing that almost everyone is, to varying degrees, a patchwork of genetically distinct cells, some with a sex that might not match that of the rest of their body. Some studies even suggest that the sex of each cell drives its behavior, through a complicated network of molecular interactions. Studies of differences or disorders of sex development have shown that sex is no simple dichotomy. However, things become even more complex when scientists zoom in to look at individual cells. The common assumption that every cell contains the same set of genes is untrue. Some people have mosaicism: they develop from a single fertilized egg but become a patchwork of cells with different genetic make-ups. This can happen when sex chromosomes are doled out unevenly between dividing cells during early embryonic development. For example, an embryo that starts off as XY can lose a Y chromosome from a subset of its cells. If most cells end up as XY, the result is a physically typical male, but if most cells are X, the result is a female with a condition called Turner’s syndrome, which tends to result in restricted height and underdeveloped ovaries. This kind of mosaicism is rare, affecting about 1 in 15,000 people. The effects of sex-chromosome mosaicism range from the prosaic to the extraordinary.
Intersex stands for being born to some extent between male and female. Intersex is a term that refers to someone whose anatomy or genetics at birth do not correspond to the typical expectations for either sex in some way or another or some other factor to make them have differences or disorders of sex development. The “I” is distinct from the “T” for transgender people, who are typically born with a biological sex that fits the norm for male or female and then grow up to identify with the opposite gender. Intersex babies are not obviously male or female to begin with, according to society’s general rules about what one’s physical characteristics and chromosomal makeup are supposed to signify.
Total number of people whose bodies differ from standard male or female one in 100 births
Hypospadias (urethral opening between corona and tip of glans penis) one in 770 births
Jacobs (XYY) one in 900 to one in 1500 or even one in 2,000 births
Total number of people receiving surgery to “normalize” genital appearance one or two in 1,000 births
Klinefelter (XXY) one in 1,000 births
Triple-X (XXX or rarer XXXX or XXXXX) one in 1,000 births
Not XX and not XY one in 1,666 births
Hypospadias (urethral opening in perineum or along penile shaft) one in 2,000 births
Turner (XO) one in 2,500 births
Vaginal agenesis one in 6,000 births
Ovotestes one in 83,000 births
Androgen insensitivity syndrome one in 13,000 births
Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia one in 13,000 births
Idiopathic (no discernable medical cause) one in 110,000 births
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome one in 130,000 births
Complete gonadal dysgenesis one in 150,000 births
Iatrogenic (caused by medical treatment, for instance progestin administered to pregnant mother) no estimate
5 alpha reductase deficiency no estimate
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis no estimate
“Biologically, it’s a spectrum,” disorders of gender identity affect as many as 1 in 100 people. There is increasing evidence of a biological basis for gender identity. A review of articles that show positive biologic bases for gender identity include sexual development, such as penile agenesis, neuroanatomical differences, such as grey and white matter studies, and steroid hormone genetics, such as genes associated with sex hormone receptors. Current data suggests a biological etiology for transgender identity. Researchers of a genetic variation in transgender women—their receptor gene for the sex hormone testosterone was longer, making it less efficient at communicating signals—set off speculation that insufficient uptake of male hormones in utero contributed to a “more feminised brain” and the brains of trans people do look different. Recent Spanish imaging studies have shown that the white matter of untreated trans men look much like those of biological males, and that the patterns of trans women’s white matter fell about halfway between those of biological male and female control groups. Despite the big genetic finding, it’s unclear what precise role genetics plays, since a recent survey of identical twins found that only in 20 % of cases did both twins turn out transgender, despite having identical DNA. Since the 1990s, researchers have identified more than 25 genes involved in differences or disorders of sex development, and next-generation DNA sequencing in the past few years has uncovered a wide range of variations in these genes that have mild effects on individuals, rather than causing differences or disorders of sex development. A longer version of LGBT is LGBTQQIA, which stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex and allies/asexual. The last few letters tend to get far less attention than the first, but a woman who claimed she was dating the Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps at the time of his DUI recently has raised interest in the “I.” “The truth is I have been living with secrets my whole life,” Taylor Lianne Chandler wrote on Facebook on Nov. 13. “I was born intersex and named David Roy Fitch at birth.”
Sexual attraction is the desire for sexual contact with a specific other person. Asexual/Nonsexual: a person who does not experience sexual attraction, but often romantic or emotional attractions may exist. Gray-asexual: a person who identifies strongly with asexuality, but does not identify as asexual. No one really knows exactly how many asexual people there are, as very few scientific studies have been done to find out. However, in the surveys that have been done, slightly over 1% of the population appears to be asexual. There us a spectrum that includes several different types of asexuality. It’s a common misconception that asexual people have no libido; it varies between them. Some have none, while in others it’s actually quite high. Celibacy means to abstain from sex, to deny your desires and not have it. It can also be a temporary state – some people will be celibate for years, and then become sexually active. It is, however, a choice. Although some asexual people are also celibate, plenty aren’t, or wouldn’t refer to themselves as such, because they’re not “giving up‟ anything. Of course, asexuals may be having sex, so that certainly stops them being celibate. Many asexuals crave the emotional closeness of romantic relationships as much as anyone else, and are quite capable of crushing on people and falling in love. Some asexual people have a gender preference for their relationships – an asexual may define as homoromantic (romantically attracted to the same gender), as heteromantic (romantically attracted to the opposite gender), as biromantic (romantically attracted to both genders) or as panromantic (being gender-indifferent as far as romantic attraction goes). Some asexuals identify as aromantic: not romantically attracted to either gender. Some asexuals are also polyamorous. Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness and fraternal birth order, are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. A study was conducted investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. Asexual individuals were 2.4 and 2.5 times, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality. Most people know, at some point in their lives, that there are people they would like to have sex with, even if they haven’t done so yet. Asexuals generally don’t feel this way. The very concept, to them, is boring, uncomfortable, or ridiculous. Many asexuals have tried having sex, because of curiosity or social pressure, and found that it wasn’t to their liking. Others have tried other forms of physical affection and found that their comfort zones end long before sex begins. Still others know themselves well enough to stay away from the whole thing in the first place. After all, you don’t need to try stuffing dirty socks in your mouth (for example) to know that it isn’t your cup of tea. Some asexuals masturbate and some others think isn’t that inherently sexual? Asexual people have no desire to involve other people in their private biological activities so some people masturbate, some people don’t it can be a personal thing not a desire for others. Some may ask, how can you be asexual if you go on dates or engage in romantic relationships? Isn’t that inherently sexual? Some asexuals don’t feel a need for romantic connections with other people, but many do. For these people, romantic attraction is best expressed through avenues other than sex, such as hugging, cuddling, and having deep conversations. Many romantic asexuals are very confused by other people’s insistence that, to be in love, you must perform an act that they may find disgusting, uncomfortable, or just plain boring (depending on the asexual in question). For them, love and sex have little, if anything, to do with each other. Others may ask, how can you be asexual if you have sex? It depends. Many asexuals have never had sex and do not plan to. Some asexuals have had sex in the past because they thought that it was impossible to be asexual, and it was what everyone else was doing. Some asexuals have had sex in order to figure out whether they enjoy it, and found out that they didn’t. Some, despite their asexuality, are willing to have sex in order to please someone that they love. Remember, Asexuality is about innate feelings, not behavior. While there is a big overlap between ‘lack of sexual attraction’ and ‘doesn’t like sex’, there are things asexuals can enjoy. Everybody is different, and it reacts the way it reacts. Seeing your partner happy, that’s great. Asexuals enjoying sex sounds like a contradiction, but it’s simple. Some asexuals enjoy and are happy to have sex with their partners. They can even get sexually aroused during sex. It’s just they don’t feel sexual attraction. Some asexual people have low sex drives, but there are asexual people who have normal sex drives or even high sex drives. Think of being a gay guy on a desert island where there are only women, Michael posits. You might have a sex drive, you want to do something about it, but there is no one you’re sexually attracted to. You might eventually do something to get rid of it, but it still doesn’t change the fact you are attracted to men. It’s the same with asexuals.
Demisexuality/demisexual: sexual attraction only after forming an emotional bond considered a sexual orientation. Many demisexuals confuse sensual attraction (wanting to touch, cuddle, etc. someone) with sexual attraction, and it can be difficult to differentiate the two. I have felt sensually attracted to people, but not sexually attracted, and I know this because the thought of cuddling with them is pleasant, but the thought of doing anything sexual with them feels weird. You might conduct a similar thought experiment if you’re wondering whether or not you’re sexually attracted to someone. If one experiences arousal, are they still demisexual? Arousal is a biological reaction to sexual stimuli, like how salivating is a biological reaction to seeing food when you’re hungry. Arousal may occur even when someone is not sexually attracted to the person they are interacting with, and may occur for other physiological reasons as well (hormone shifts, blood flow, etc.) If one has a sex drive, are they still demisexual? Some demisexuals have a high sex drive, some have a low one, and some have one which changes. Whichever, one is had one can certainly still identify as demisexual. It is possible to feel sexual attraction and have no sex drive to act on it, or not feel sexual attraction and have an impulse to satisfy a sex drive. So how would one know if they are demisexual or asexual? Some people, who have not felt sexual attraction, wonder if they are demisexual because they could feel sexually attracted to someone in future and have not yet met the right person. Regarding this, go with whatever best describes you now, and worry about changing your label if you have new experiences later on (they might happen, they might not). If you haven’t felt sexual attraction, asexual might fit better, but if you have felt sexual attraction after forming an emotional bond with someone, demisexual might fit better.
Sex desire and sexual attraction or even how that relates to behavior may vary. Scholars from a wide range of human social and behavioral sciences have become interested in the romantic–sexual kiss. This research, and its public dissemination, often includes statements about the ubiquity of kissing, particularly romantic–sexual kissing, across cultures. Yet, to date there is no evidence to support or reject this claim. Employing standard cross-cultural methods, this research report is the first attempt to use a large sample set (eHRAF World Cultures, SCCS, and a selective ethnographer survey) to document the presence or absence of the romantic–sexual kiss (n = 168 cultures). We defined romantic–sexual kissing as lip-to-lip contact that may or may not be prolonged. Despite frequent depictions of kissing in a wide range of material culture, we found no evidence that the romantic–sexual kiss is a human universal or even a near universal. The romantic–sexual kiss was present in a minority of cultures sampled (46%). Moreover, there is a strong correlation between the frequency of the romantic–sexual kiss and a society’s relative social complexity: the more socially complex the culture, the higher frequency of romantic–sexual kissing. [kiss, kissing, romantic, sexual, intimate]
There is increasing evidence of a biological basis for sexual orientation, being Bisexual, Pansexual, Gynesexual, Androsexual, Skoliosexual and Homosexual is not a choice any more then heterosexuality is a choice. Homosexuality and bisexual are everywhere in nature and are part of the evolutionary process, same sex attraction exists throughout nature and life continues. Humans aren’t the only species that has same-sex pairings, lots of animals engage in homosexual behavior, in fact it is extremely common across the animal kingdom, from insects to mammals. Bruce Bagemihl’s 1999 book Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, which outlined so many examples, from so many different species, that the topic moved to center stage. Since then, scientists have studied these behaviors systematically. 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality. For instance, female Japanese macaques may sometimes participate in energetic sexual stimulation. Lions, chimpanzees, bison and dolphins have also been spotted in same-sex pairings. In addition, nearly 130 bird species have been observed engaging in sexual activities with same-sex partners. While the evolutionary purpose of this behavior is not clear, the fact that animals routinely exhibit same-sex behavior belies the notion that gay sex is a modern human innovation. If a strictly natural selection thinking implies, genes have to get themselves passed on to the next generation, or they will die out. Any genes that make an animal more likely to engage in same-sex mattings would be less likely to get passed on than genes pushing for heterosexual pairings, so homosexuality ought to quickly die out. However, that evidently isn’t what’s happening. For some animals, homosexual behavior isn’t an occasional event – which we might put down to simple mistakes – but a regular thing. “Homosexual behavior doesn’t challenge natural selection thinking,” instead there are many ways it can evolve and be beneficial. We may never find a wild animal that is strictly homosexual in the way some humans are. Nevertheless, we can expect to find many more animals that don’t conform to traditional categories of sexual orientation. They are using sex to satisfy all sorts of needs, from simple pleasure to social advancement, and that means being flexible.
Androsexual/Androphilic: attracted to males, men, and/or masculinity
Gynesexual/Gynephilic: attracted to females, women, and/or femininity
Skoliosexual/Skoliophilic: attracted to genderqueer and transsexual people and expressions (people who aren’t identified as cisgender)
Pansexual: attracted to all people, regardless of biological sex, gender identity, or expression
No studies have found specific “gay genes” that reliably make someone gay. But some genes may make being gay likelier. For instance, a 2014 study in the journal Psychological Medicine showed that a gene on the X chromosome (one of the sex chromosomes) called Xq28 and a gene on chromosome 8 seem to be found in higher prevalence in men who are gay. That study, involving more than 400 pairs of gay brothers, followed the 1993 report by geneticist Dean Hamer suggesting the existence of a “gay gene.” Other research has found that being gay or lesbian tends to run in families. It’s also more likely for two identical twins, who share all of their genes, to both be gay than it is for two fraternal twins, who share just half of their genes, to both be homosexual. Those studies also suggest that genes seemed to have a greater influence on the sexual orientation of male versus female identical twins. A 2012 study proposed that epigenetic changes, or alterations in marks on DNA that turn certain genes on and off, may play a role in homosexuality. This type of gene regulation isn’t as stable as DNA, and can be switched on and off by environmental factors or conditions in the womb during prenatal development. But this so-called epigenome can also be passed on from generation to generation, which would explain why being gay seems to run in families, even when a single gene can’t be pinpointed. How such gay genes get passed down from generation to generation has puzzled scientists, given that gay couples cannot reproduce. One study found that gay men are biologically predisposed to help care for their nieces and nephews. Essentially, these gay uncles are helping their relatives to reproduce. “Kin therefore pass on more of the genes which they would share with their homosexual relatives,” said evolutionary psychologist Paul Vasey of the University of Lethbridge in Canada, in a past Live Science article. If being gay is truly a choice, then people who attempt to change their orientation should be able to do so. On that, studies are clear. Gay conversion therapy is ineffective, several studies have found, and the American Psychological Association now says such treatment is harmful and can worsen feelings of self-hatred. For men, studies suggest that orientation is fixed by the time the individual reaches puberty. Women show greater levels of “erotic plasticity,” meaning their levels of attraction are more significantly shaped by culture, experience and love than is the case for men. However, even women who switch from gay to straight lifestyles don’t stop being attracted to women, according to a 2012 study in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior. Those results suggest that while people can change their behavior, they aren’t really changing their basic sexual attraction.
No-primary/Non-primary relationship. An intimate (romantic/sexual) relationship that by mutual agreement does not have the traditional relationship escalator role or goal of becoming primary life partners (married or equivalent) who share a household. These relationships can be monogamous, polyamorous, or otherwise. Non-primary relationships can be very long-term and significant, or not. Are We Biologically Inclined to Couple for Life? “Till death do us part” is a compelling idea, but with the divorce rate exceeding 50 percent, and estimates suggest 20 to 60 percent or more of people cheat on their spouses many people would very likely agree that humans have a biological impulse to be non-monogamous. One popular theory suggests that the brain is wired to seek out as many partners as possible, a behavior observed in nature. Chimpanzees, for instance, live in promiscuous social groups where males copulate with many females, and vice versa. For humans, monogamy is not biologically ordained. According to evolutionary psychologist David M. Buss of the University of Texas at Austin, humans are in general innately inclined toward non-monogamy. However, promiscuity is not a universal phenomenon; lifelong relationships can and do work for many people. Americans have traditionally been prudish about sex, but in the midst of a more frank emerging dialogue about desire, one that includes being honest about what kind of sex we want and exactly how we want it, a new crop of influential couples counselors have come to prominence. Instead of relegating sex to the margins of the therapeutic process, they’re emphasizing its centrality to our relationships and suggesting that sexual happiness, within or beyond the borders of monogamy and matrimony, is key to couples’ contentment. “[W]hen we say ‘infidelity,’ what exactly do we mean?” Is it a hookup, a love story, paid sex, a chat room, a massage with a happy ending, sexting, watching porn, staying secretly active on dating apps? The modern idea of coupling, which insists people, be all things to their partners and a mirror reflection of their most complete selves, has made infidelity even more consequential. “We have a romantic ideal in which we turn to one person to fulfill an endless list of needs,” one therapist states. Non-monogamous relationships do not conform to the cultural norm of a handholding couple in love for life. They come in an array of forms, from occasional “swinging” and open relationships to long-term commitments among multiple people, etc. Consensual non-monogamy does not include cheating, in which one partner steps out without the permission of the other. While there are no national statistics on consensual non-monogamy, University of Michigan psychologist Terri Conley has estimated that about 5 percent of Americans are in one of these types of relationships at any given time. From the little data collected, scientists know lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals are slightly more likely than heterosexuals to enter non-monogamous relationships.
Me and My Gender Diversity
Intersex male is my biological sex and genderqueer is my gender identity my sexual orientation is heterosexual/gynesexual and my gender expression is mainly male. I am also in a Non-monogamous relationship (open marriage).
I once was ashamed to be me, and then I stopped requiring others approval to validate who I am and I found it is how I live and love myself that matters. It’s the most freeing thing I ever chose to do…
Let me give you more background on me if you are interested in understanding me and my gender more.
I am mildly intersex meaning I have biological and physical differences.
Few of the obvious physical ones are I have female size nipples, hidden penis, and a non closed internal pelvic opening. At birth, the underside of my penis had a small opening like a pseudo vagina, which was surgically closed at birth. Therefore, I had “severe hypospadias” of my penis, “severe hypospadias a very mild form of intersex (under-virilization of a genetic male). Hypospadias is the most common anomaly of the penis affecting approximately one in 250 males born.”
Biologically, I had my testosterone checked and it is so low that it is less than some women. Mentally and emotionally, I am often more attracted to feminine things such as watching a play than playing sports, being creative than working on a car. I enjoy cooking, shopping, clothes stylist, decorating, getting manicure and pedicures, painting my nails, I have tattooed eye liner as well, and when around a group of women I often forget I am male. I have always felt offended when women are put down and not valued since it feels like it is against me.
Even in one of my counseling courses in a brick school for my bachelors, the class was 20 students and I did not realize I was the only male until the professor asked me how does it feel to be the only male in class? I actually had to look around since I did not believe I was the only male since I felt so comfortable. However, one can’t prove to others how they feel or should they have to. I don’t believe everyone who is genderqueer has to have proof of gender diversity. Nevertheless, I will say with an honest heart that I have felt both male and female my whole life. To simply call myself a man and nothing else seems to deny something inside. I use to be ashamed that I had two genders but after realizing how relatively common it is I am now ok and realize that I am not that strange. I am not the only one.
According Rathus, Nevid, & Fichner-Rathus (2008), everyone starts out basically as a female and it takes three processes to make a male. First are defeminizing androgens, then masculinizing androgens, and then testosterone. Actually, genetics differences are quite common: one in every 1500 males and one in every 5000 females has a genetic gender difference which is more than people with red hair in the world. That is 3 times more men than women, so I am in good company. Therefore, where I stand is I am a genderqueer man but am heterosexual not gay or bi. Or You could say I am a gynesexual which means one born only attracted sexually to women (for me only Cis women) and usually who are also feminine expressing. Because gynesexual means one born only attracted to women this would mean it could be applied to several different genders from straight men, to someone intersex even lesbian women. Why add gynesexual? Because just telling you “I’m heterosexual” does not truly answer the question. Especially since “hetero” means different and there are different, sexes than just male and female that have been documented (yes all the intersexes). So which sex different from your own are you attracted to from an intersex person could be not rightly explained with saying “I’m heterosexual.” It is better to use a word that directly states, “I’m attracted to Cis women”.
Rathus, S.A., Nevid, J.S., & Fichner-Rathus, L. (2008). Human sexuality: In a world of diversity (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
By Damien Marie AtHope