Intersex people can identify their Gender as: MaleFemaleTransthird genderGenderqueerNon-binaryEtc.

“Being non-binary is also not the same as being intersex; most intersex people identify as either male or female.” ref

Intersex people can identify their Sexual orientation as: heterosexualityhomosexualitybisexualitypansexual or polysexualasexualityEtc.

“Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinitygynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity.” ref

I am fine with how others define themselves but this does not mean people supporting DSD “disorders of sex development” over or instead of Intersex can just deny the term intersex used by others. 

“Previously, DSDs were called “intersex” conditions. This means “between the sexes.” However, this term felt uncomfortable to some people with who identified themselves as strongly male or strongly female.” ref

And to me, they may say they are strongly only male or female because that is what religion and most in our bigotry society are forced to believe in a fake gender binary. The issue of forcing DSD and denying Intersex is similar to the arguments used by TERFs. But the difference in this case also can involve doctors and hospitals using terms they choose as if a intersex human rights movement did not even exist.

TERF (/tɜːrf/) is an acronym for trans-exclusionary radical feminist. First recorded in 2008, the term TERF was originally used to distinguish transgender-inclusive feminists from a group of radical feminists and social conservatives who reject the position that trans women are women, including trans women in women’s spaces, and transgender rights legislation. Trans-inclusive feminists assert that these ideas and positions are transphobic and discriminatory towards transgender people. The use of the term TERF has since broadened to include reference to people with trans-exclusionary views who are not necessarily involved with radical feminismThough TERF was created to be a “deliberately technically neutral description”, the term is now typically considered derogatory or disparaging. People labeled TERFs often reject the label, instead describing their beliefs as gender critical.” ref

Some people with intersex traits use the term “intersex”, and some prefer other language. In clinical settings, the term “disorders of sex development” (DSD) has been used since 2006, a shift in language considered controversial since its introduction. In 2016, found that 60% of respondents used the term “intersex” to self-describe their sex characteristics, including people identifying themselves as intersex, describing themselves as having an intersex variation or, in smaller numbers, having an intersex condition. In 2017 found that 80% of Support Group respondents “strongly liked, liked or felt neutral about intersex” as a term, while caregivers were less supportive. The hospital reported that the use of the term “disorders of sex development” may negatively affect care.” ref

There is a human rights movement for Intersex people but not DSD or VSC, which some people (commonly bigots) try to remove Intersex’s connotation of being “beyond the binary male and female.” When DSD is pushed over Intersex it is almost always in furtherance of the binary bigotry view. When you see people calling Intersex DSD it is generally bigots. Most Intersex people see the term DSD as trying to make Intersex just a disorder of male or female, to deny THAT Intersex exists. Or say most if not all cases of Intersex are not somehow actually Intersex. It is like bigotry against Trans trying to say they are wrong and are still the gender of their birth sex assigned to them.

What’s the history behind the intersex rights movement?

by the Intersex Society of North America

“Beginning in the late nineteenth century, medicine became the primary means for dealing with intersex. Before then, the vast majority of people with intersex conditions went unnoticed by legal, religious, or medical establishments and only a few cases per year came to the attention of authorities. Presumably other people with so-called “abnormal” sex anatomies lived average lives, either because their anatomical variance was undetectable or was not considered especially important. When a newborn had a high degree of genital ambiguity, midwives, grandmothers, and other local elders appear to have assigned the sex. (In terms of sexual orientation, all people were expected to then have sexual relations solely with those who had been identified as the “opposite” sex; in many places, violation of this rule was punishable by violent, sometimes fatal means.)” ref

“However, by the late 1800s, through gynecological sciences and numerous wartime military medical examinations, doctors gained a much better sense that “abnormal” sex anatomies were actually quite common. Indeed, late-nineteenth century medical men began reporting dozens of cases a year of “hermaphroditism” and “pseudo-hermaphroditism.” Because most medical experts were politically conservative and wanted to keep sex borders clearly defined to combat open homosexuality and the rise of feminism, intersex caused them notable stress. (The conflation of sex, sexual orientation, and gender expression becomes clear in the 1890s use of the term “psychic hermaphroditism” to refer to gay men, and in the common “scientific” claim that university education physically “masculinized” women.) Therefore, biomedical specialists devised a system that would label everyone “truly male” or “truly female,” regardless of the extent and natural reality of sexual blending.” ref

“Medical doctors created an arbitrary standard based on gonadal tissue, which persists in most medical texts today. A person with non-standard sex anatomy and ovaries is seen as a “female pseudo-hermaphrodite”; a person with non-standard sex anatomy and testes, is seen as a “male pseudo-hermaphrodite”; and if a person has ovarian and testicular tissue, they are seen as a “true hermaphrodite.” Given the technological limitations of the time, Victorian doctors liked this system because they couldn’t easily diagnose “true hermaphroditism” in living people; as a consequence, for the most part the only “true hermaphrodites” were dead and dissected people and the only medical information about intersex came from posthumous examinations.” ref

“All other people thought to be intersex, including pseudo-hermaphroditic, were labeled “truly male” or “truly female” and told to act socially and sexually normative in their assigned gender. However, with improved medical techniques and increased access to healthcare, many more people were being diagnosed with a biological “true sex” that made no sense socially. (In the 1910s as today, women with androgen insensitivity couldn’t practically be labeled men just because they had testes.) And, in a bi-polar gender paradigm, there was no simple social category for those diagnosed with “true hermaphroditism.” So, by the 1920s, experts treating intersex developed a notion of gender (social role) separated from biological sex. And they began to more actively offer surgical “corrections” to bring the biological sex into line with the assigned gender. So the theoretical approaches and surgical techniques evolved bit by bit, though motivation remained the same: keeping sex categories distinct and numbering only two.” ref

“It should be noted that, in the last half of the nineteenth century, a small percentage of patients with intersex had started to ask for, and some surgeons had started to offer surgical reconstruction of large clitorises, small vaginas, and hypospadic penises. With the exception of the rare clitorectomy performed on a child because she had a large clitoris, most of the genital surgeries performed for cosmetic reasons in the nineteenth century were performed on adults at their request. Both patients and surgeons generally avoided elective surgery for reasons of safety. There is also reason to believe that most people with intersex were socially healthy without surgery; they did not disproportionately live as hermits or attempt suicide. Psychologist John Money studied adults with intersex and found—before the era of standard cosmetic surgical intervention for intersex—that they enjoyed a lower rate of psychopathology than the general population.” ref

“Nevertheless, like many other realms of biology, sexuality, and psychology, intersex increasingly became the purview of medicine. For a small number of people with intersex—namely those at risk for gonadal cancers and salt-wasting—the medicalization of intersex probably improved their health, sometimes even saving their lives. Nevertheless, most of the treatment of intersex was motivated not by metabolic health concerns, but by psychosocial concerns; as in the 1890s, by the 1950s, intersex was viewed primarily as a psychosocial problem that mixed sex categories in socially uncomfortable ways.” ref

“In the 1950s, Johns Hopkins University created a team and became the first medical center to offer an organized multi-disciplinary approach to intersex, one that sought to essentially eliminate intersex in early childhood. The approach developed there came to be known as the “optimum gender of rearing” model. The basic idea was that each child’s potential for a “normal” gender identity should be maximized by making each child’s body, upbringing, and mind align as much as possible. Because of the belief that it was harder to surgically engineer a boy than a girl, most children with intersex were made as feminine as possible, utilizing surgery, endocrinology, and psychology. A “successful” patient was one judged to be stable and “normal” (i.e., heterosexual) in the assigned gender. (In an era of vice squads raiding gay bars, it is not surprising that homosexuality appeared to most of these professionals an untenable identity.)” ref

“Though the early texts from this team advocated truth-telling and consistent psychological support, in practice many patients were deceived and given minimal psychological support. As in most of medicine, doctors made the decisions for patients. There was little investment in the ideas of informed consent or of studying outcomes in a systematic way. (It wasn’t until the 1960s that medical professionals began aggressively looking for cases of intersex.)” ref

“Psychologist John Money provided theoretical support for the Hopkins model, arguing that gender identity was largely mutable early in life, that nurture was more important than nature. His chief support for this claim came from a famous case known as “John/Joan.” The person at the center, David Reimer, was born an identical twin (not intersex) boy in 1965. While performing a circumcision, a doctor accidentally burned off eight-month-old David’s penis. David’s parents consulted with the team at Hopkins, and Money recommended they change the sex and gender of their child and raise David as a girl. For decades Money erroneously touted a successful outcome because the child reportedly had become a normal, female-identified, heterosexual girl. The truth was that David had never felt fully female. Indeed, when his parents told him the truth about what happened to him, he immediately re-assumed the gender role of a man.” ref

“It is unknown why Money—who in 1953 had found a relatively low rate of psychopathology among adults with intersex—thought people with intersex needed to have their sexes and genders surgically and socially engineered to be psychologically healthy. It is better understood why people did not question Money’s controversial theory of nurture-over-nature approach. Surgeons and psychologists liked the theory because it signified that they were providing necessary, good care to “abnormal” children. Feminists liked the theory because they preferred the idea that gender – and therefore gender norms – were socially constructed and malleable. Parents probably liked it because they could be reassured that their queer-bodied children would grow up to be straight-acting adults.” ref

“But some people didn’t like this system: people who—like David Reimer—felt mistreated at best, and medically assaulted at worst, by their medical treatment. Nevertheless, most stayed silent, believing they were alone in their experiences. That changed in 1993, when feminist biologist Anne Fausto-Sterling published articles in The Sciences and The New York Times exposing the basic fact that intersex exists. In response, Cheryl Chase wrote a letter to The Sciences announcing the founding of the Intersex Society of North America (ISNA). She founded the group because of her own attempts to recover her history of sex-reassignment in infancy and medically-induced shame, and because of the disinterest of most of her former care providers in what had happened to her. Soon Chase had brought together dozens of people with intersex.” ref

“Though ISNA began as a support group, it quickly turned into an advocacy group because its members realized that they had suffered from similar problems. Like many of the early ISNA members, Chase drew on her political consciousness as a lesbian woman to recognize the degree to which intersex had been unnecessarily socially and medically pathologized. With the successes of the women’s health movement and the queer rights movements as a backdrop, people with intersex began agitating for openness and reform.” ref

“Early on, very few medical professionals recognized ISNA’s critiques as legitimate. Many responded that the standard of care was necessary, successful, and justified, even going so far as to actively defend lying to patients about their medical histories. Those at the top simply tried to ignore ISNA. As the leader of the newly formed intersex rights movement, Chase moved rapidly, sometimes able to engage in dialog, and having group protests when doctors would not listen. With her professional background in computer science, she was particularly adept at using the tools of the Internet to spread ISNA’s message. ISNA also supported the inquiries of researchers like Suzanne Kessler, Anne Fausto-Sterling, and Alice Dreger, and the organization engaged in media outreach as much as possible.” ref

“By about 2001, it had become clear to all that the intersex rights movement was not going away. The claims of activists were illustrated in story after story of problematic intersex treatment, as well as in research that strongly suggested gender identity is not simply a matter of nurture. The fact that medical professionals were unable to produce an intersex patient satisfied with his/her childhood treatment negated the claims that the advocacy groups solely represented the experiences of a disgruntled minority.” ref

“Finally, many medical professionals began to respond to calls for outcome data, research, full disclosure of information, and revision of homophobic and sexist protocols. The intersex rights movement undoubtedly was helped in its success by surrounding trends in favor of LBGT (lesbian, bi, gay, transgender) rights, patients’ rights, and children’s rights. Since 1993, due to increased public education, tens of millions of people have learned about intersex. Thanks to the internet, thousands of people with intersex have mets others like them, in spite of having been told by their doctors they would never be able to do that—their conditions were supposedly so rare.” ref

“ISNA members have gone from picket lines to having a seat at the table in medical conferences. We give grand rounds presentations, help with medical school curricular development, and receive emails from physicians asking for our advice on how to handle intersex cases. Our website is recognized as the definitive source for all things intersex, and for being a life-saving porthold for thousands of people desperate for answers and directions to “their tribe”. We have convinced hospitals around the world to examine their practices, to find out what has happened to former patients, and to be accountable for the sometimes-poor effects of good intentions.” ref

“Over a decade into the work of ISNA, medical professionals are less inclined to lie to patients and parents in intersex cases, are less likely to make openly homophobic or sexist remarks, and are more likely to admit uncertainty about the right course of action. A number of teams are engaged in active outcomes research, though opinions still differ about what outcomes should be sought; some think stable gender identity and heterosexuality are the objective; others suggest it should be lack of depression.) What type of care an individual or family will receive now varies dramatically; what happens to a child with intersex today appears to depend not only on where she or he is born, but who happens to be on call when she or he is born.” ref

“Even today, the goal of many leading teams treating intersex is still to make intersex disappear. Pediatric endocrinologist Maria New, recommends Dexamethasone to women who may be carrying an XX child with CAH; these treatments do not alleviate CAH, it only makes the child’s clitoris appear smaller (and, clinicians hope, makes the child less likely to grow up lesbian). Abortion is routinely offered to women who are likely pregnant with children with intersex conditions, including Klinefelter’s Syndrome. Many surgeons maintain the paternalistic attitude that they should remove healthy testes from babies with AIS to “spare them the trauma later,” thereby denying these girls the opportunity to have a natural puberty and to come to know themselves, in a sexual way, free from surgical scars. Many endocrinologists press unnecessary—sometimes devestating—“normalizing” hormone treatments on patients who are otherwise healthy. Finally, doctors continue constructing vaginas in infants and young children, despite arguments by many medical professionals that early vaginoplasties fail too often and are unnecessary to begin with.” ref

“By contrast, as in the women’s rights movement, the civil rights movement, and the LGBT rights movements, the goal of intersex advocacy groups is to have people understand intersex conditions as human rights issues. ISNA maintains as its fundamental principle the principle also fundamental to the women’s health movement and the LBGT rights movements: that one’s genitals are primarily for one’s own use, not for the comfort of others.” ref


Intersex people are individuals born with any of several sex characteristics including chromosome patterns, gonads, or genitals that, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, “do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies.” ref

Sex assignment at birth usually aligns with a child’s anatomical sex and phenotype. The number of births with ambiguous genitals is in the range of 1:4,500–1:2,000 (0.02%–0.05%). Other conditions involve atypical chromosomes, gonads, or hormones. Some persons may be assigned and raised as a girl or boy but then identify with another gender later in life, while most continue to identify with their assigned sex. The number of births where the baby is intersex has been reported differently depending on who reports and which definition of intersex is used. Anne Fausto-Sterling and her book co-authors suggest that the prevalence of “nondimorphic sexual development” might be as high as 1.7%.” ref 

“A study published by Leonard Sax reports that this figure includes conditions such as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia and XXY/Klinefelter syndrome which most clinicians do not recognize as intersex; Sax states, “if the term intersex is to retain any meaning, the term should be restricted to those conditions in which chromosomal sex is inconsistent with phenotypic sex, or in which the phenotype is not classifiable as either male or female,” stating the prevalence of intersex is about 0.018%. This means that for every 5,500 babies born, one either has sex chromosomes that do not match their appearance, or the appearance is so ambiguous that it is not clear whether the baby is male or female.” ref

“Terms used to describe intersex people are contested, and change over time and place. Intersex people were previously referred to as “hermaphrodites” or “congenital eunuchs“. In the 19th and 20th centuries, some medical experts devised new nomenclature in an attempt to classify the characteristics that they had observed, the first attempt to create a taxonomic classification system of intersex conditions. Intersex people were categorized as either having “true hermaphroditism“, “female pseudohermaphroditism“, or “male pseudohermaphroditism.” ref 

“These terms are no longer used, and terms including the word “hermaphrodite” are considered to be misleading, stigmatizing, and scientifically specious in reference to humans. In biology, the term “hermaphrodite” is used to describe an organism that can produce both male and female gametes. Some people with intersex traits use the term “intersex”, and some prefer other language. In clinical settings, the term “disorders of sex development” (DSD) has been used since 2006, a shift in language considered controversial since its introduction.” ref

“Intersex people face stigmatization and discrimination from birth, or following the discovery of intersex traits at stages of development such as puberty. Intersex people may face infanticide, abandonment, and stigmatization from their families. Globally, some intersex infants and children, such as those with ambiguous outer genitalia, are surgically or hormonally altered to create more socially acceptable sex characteristics. This is considered controversial, with no firm evidence of favorable outcomes. Such treatments may involve sterilization. Adults, including elite female athletes, have also been subjects of such treatment. Increasingly, these issues are considered human rights abuses, with statements from international and national human rights and ethics institutions.” ref 

“Intersex organizations have also issued statements about human rights violations, including the 2013 Malta declaration of the third International Intersex Forum. In 2011, Christiane Völling became the first intersex person known to have successfully sued for damages in a case brought for non-consensual surgical intervention. In April 2015, Malta became the first country to outlaw non-consensual medical interventions to modify sex anatomy, including that of intersex people.” ref

“There is no clear consensus definition of intersex and no clear delineation of which specific conditions qualify an individual as intersex. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD), the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and many medical journals classify intersex traits or conditions among disorders of sex development (DSD). In 1917, Richard Goldschmidt created the term “intersexuality” to refer to a variety of physical sex ambiguities. However, according to The SAGE Encyclopedia of LGBTQ Studies, it was not until Anne Fausto Sterling published her article “The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough” in 1993 that the term reached popularity.” ref

“Some intersex organizations reference “intersex people” and “intersex variations or traits” while others use more medicalized language such as “people with intersex conditions”, or people “with intersex conditions or DSDs (differences of sex development)” and “children born with variations of sex anatomy”. In May 2016, interACT published a statement recognizing “increasing general understanding and acceptance of the term ‘intersex’.” ref

“Australian sociological research on 272 “people born with atypical sex characteristics”, published in 2016, found that 60% of respondents used the term “intersex” to self-describe their sex characteristics, including people identifying themselves as intersex, describing themselves as having an intersex variation or, in smaller numbers, having an intersex condition. Respondents also commonly used diagnostic labels and referred to their sex chromosomes, with word choices depending on audience.” ref

“Research on 202 respondents by the Lurie Children’s Hospital, Chicago, and the AIS-DSD Support Group (now known as InterConnect Support Group) published in 2017 found that 80% of Support Group respondents “strongly liked, liked or felt neutral about intersex” as a term, while caregivers were less supportive. The hospital reported that the use of the term “disorders of sex development” may negatively affect care.” ref

“Another study by a group of children’s hospitals in the United States found that 53% of 133 parent and adolescent participants recruited at five clinics did not like the term “intersex”. Participants who were members of support groups were more likely to dislike the term. A “dsd-LIFE” study in 2020 found that around 43% of 179 participants thought the term “intersex” was bad, 20% felt neutral about the term, while the rest thought the term was good.” ref

“Historically, the term “hermaphrodite” was used in law to refer to people whose sex was in doubt. The 12th-century Decretum Gratiani states that “Whether an hermaphrodite may witness a testament, depends on which sex prevails” (“Hermafroditus an ad testamentum adhiberi possit, qualitas sexus incalescentis ostendit.”). Similarly, the 17th-century English jurist and judge Edward Coke (Lord Coke), wrote in his Institutes of the Lawes of England on laws of succession stating, “Every heire is either a male, a female, or an hermaphrodite, that is both male and female. And an hermaphrodite (which is also called Androgynus) shall be heire, either as male or female, according to that kind of sexe which doth prevaile.” ref

“During the Victorian era, medical authors attempted to ascertain whether or not humans could be hermaphrodites, adopting a precise biological definition for the term, and making distinctions between “male pseudohermaphrodite”, “female pseudohermaphrodite” and especially “true hermaphrodite“. These terms, which reflected histology (microscopic appearance) of the gonads, are no longer used. Until the mid-20th century, “hermaphrodite” was used synonymously with “intersex”. Medical terminology shifted in the early 21st century, not only due to concerns about language, but also a shift to understandings based on genetics.” ref 

“The term “hermaphrodite” is also controversial as it implies the existence of someone fully male and fully female. This is a fantasy by certain people who seek “hermaphrodite” sex partners; in the Intersex movement, such people are called “wannafucks”. As such the term “hermaphrodite” is often seen as degrading and offensive, although many intersex activists use it as a direct form of self empowerment and critique such as in the ISNA‘s first newsletter Hermaphrodites with Attitude.” ref

“The Intersex Society of North America has stated that hermaphrodites should not be confused with intersex people and that using “hermaphrodite” to refer to intersex individuals is considered to be stigmatizing and misleading. Estimates of the number of people who are intersex vary, depending on which conditions are counted as intersex. The now-defunct Intersex Society of North America stated that:

If you ask experts at medical centers how often a child is born so noticeably atypical in terms of genitalia that a specialist in sex differentiation is called in, the number comes out to about 1 in 1,500 to 1 in 2,000 births[0.07–0.05%]. But a lot more people than that are born with subtler forms of sex anatomy variations, some of which won’t show up until later in life.” ref

Anne Fausto-Sterling and her co-authors broadly said in 2000 that “[a]dding the estimates of all known causes of nondimorphic sexual development suggests that approximately 1.7% of all live births do not conform to a Platonic ideal of absolute sex chromosome, gonadal, genital, and hormonal dimorphism”; these publications have been widely quoted by intersex activists. Of the 1.7%, 1.5% points (88% of those considered “nondimorphic sexual development” in this figure) consist of individuals with late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH) which may be asymptomatic but can present after puberty and cause infertility.” ref

“In response to Fausto-Sterling, Leonard Sax estimated that the prevalence of intersex was about 0.018% of the world’s population, after discounting several conditions including LOCAH, Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), the chromosomal variants of 47,XYY and 47,XXX, and vaginal agenesis. Sax reasons that in these conditions chromosomal sex is consistent with phenotypic sex and phenotype is classifiable as either male or female.” ref

“In a 2003 letter to the editor, political scientist Carrie Hull analyzed the data used by Fausto-Sterling and said the estimated intersex rate should instead have been 0.37%, due to many errors. In a response letter published simultaneously, Fausto-Sterling welcomed the additional analysis and said “I am not invested in a particular final estimate, only that there BE an estimate.” A 2018 review reported that the number of births with ambiguous genitals is in the range of 0.02% to 0.05%.” ref

Intersex Human Rights Australia says it maintains 1.7% as its preferred upper limit “despite its flaws”, stating both that the estimate “encapsulates the entire population of people who are stigmatized – or risk stigmatization – due to innate sex characteristics”, and that Sax’s definitions exclude individuals who experience such stigma and who have helped to establish the intersex movement. According to InterACT, a major organization for intersex rights in the US, states that 1.7% of people have some variation of sexual development (intersex), 0.5% have atypical genitalia, and 0.05% have mixed/ambiguous genitalia.” ref 

The following summarizes prevalences of traits that have been called intersex:

Prevalences of various conditions that have been called intersex
Intersex condition Sex specificity Approximate prevalence
Late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (nonclassical forms)[i] Female (males are generally asymptomatic) One in 50–1,000 births (0.1–0.2% up to 1–2% depending on population)
Hypospadias Male One in 200–10,000 male births (0.01%–0.5%), prevalence estimates vary considerably
Klinefelter syndrome Male One in 500–1,000 male births (0.1–0.2%)
Trisomy X Female One in 1,000 female births (0.10%)
Turner syndrome Female One in 2,500 female births (0.04%)
Müllerian agenesis (of vagina, i.e., MRKH Syndrome) Female One in 4,500 female births (0.022%)
Vaginal atresia Female One in 5,000 female births (0.02%)
45,X/46,XY mosaicism None (usually male) One in 6,666 births (0.015%)
XYY syndrome Male One in 7,000 male births (0.0142%)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (classical forms) None (but virilization of female infants) One in 10,000–20,000 births (0.01–0.02%)
XXYY syndrome Male One in 18,000–40,000 male births (0.0025%–0.0055%)
XXXYY syndrome Male Less than one in 1000000 births
de la Chapelle syndrome None (usually male phenotype) One in 20,000 male births (0.005%)
Ovotesticular syndrome None One in 20,000 births (0.005%)
XY gonadal dysgenesis Phenotypic female One in 80,000 births (0.0013%)
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (complete and partial phenotypes) Genetic male One in 99,000 births (0.001%)
Androgen deficiency None No estimate
Idiopathic (no discernable medical cause) None One in 110,000 births (0.0009%)
Iatrogenic (caused by medical treatment, e.g., progestogen administered to pregnant mother) None No estimate
5-alpha-reductase deficiency Male No estimate
Polycystic ovary syndrome[98][99][iii] Female PCOS is partially non-hereditary, roughly 2–20% of women post puberty have PCOS.
Aromatase excess syndrome None No estimate
Aromatase deficiency syndrome None No estimate
Anorchia Male No estimate
Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome Male No estimate
46,XX/46,XY None No estimate
Leydig cell hypoplasia Male One in 1,000,000 male births (0.0.0001%)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone insensitivity None No estimate
Familial male-limited precocious puberty Male No estimate
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency None No estimate
Isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency None No estimate
Testicular dysgenesis syndrome Male No estimate
Penoscrotal transposition Male No estimate
Kallmann syndrome None One in 30,000 male births, 1 in 125,000 female births (0.003–0.0008%)
Hyperandrogenism None No estimate
Hyperestrogenism None No estimate
Polyorchidism Male No estimate
Aphallia Male No estimate
Cryptorchidism Male One in 33–100 male births (3–1%)
Cloacal exstrophy (born with XY chromosomes) Male One in 400,000 live births (0.0025%)

Measuring Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

“Some people are assigned male or female at birth but are born with traits including sexual anatomy, reproductive organs, and/or chromosome patterns that may not fit the typical definition of male or female. These traits may be known as variations or differences of sex development (DSD) or intersex.” ref

“The measurement of intersex status—also known as differences in sex development (DSD)—is complicated by the unique experiences of intersex populations and a limited research base. As discussed in Part I, intersex variations are highly heterogeneous and can involve any sex trait. Most people with intersex traits are born with genitals that appear to be male or female and are therefore assigned either male or female at birth. Often, they are not identified as having an intersex variation until later in life, at times in adolescence or adulthood, if at all.” ref

“Have you ever been diagnosed by a medical doctor or other health professional with an intersex condition or a “Difference of Sex Development (DSD)” or were you born with (or developed naturally in puberty) genitals, reproductive organs, and/or chromosomal patterns that do not fit standard definitions of male or female?ref

“Among this sample, over 10 percent of the respondents had no confirmed intersex diagnosis, and nearly 50 percent reported two or more intersex diagnoses. These respondents were also asked to report their sex assigned at birth and gender identity: 3.7 percent responded “not sure” to their sex assigned at birth, 63.4 percent reported intersex as their gender identity, and 15.8 percent identified as transgender. Again, the sample was predominantly White (72.8%), educated (60.9% with a bachelor’s or higher degree), and assigned female at birth (66.3%). For those who reported their specific intersex variation, complete androgen insensitivity syndrome was relatively overrepresented as the most common variation (19.1%), and classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia was relatively underrepresented (5.7%).ref

“A 2020 survey conducted by the Center for American Progress (2021) included an intersex status question that simplified the first GenIUSS question listed above: “Have you ever been diagnosed by a medical doctor with an intersex condition?” The initial sample of self-identified LGBT adults was selected from a national, probability panel of U.S. households held by AmeriSpeak and was supplemented with respondents from a nonprobability opt-in online panel of respondents. Of 1,528 participants, 4.9 percent answered that they had been diagnosed with an intersex condition. The nonresponse rate was 0.9 percent. This sample was somewhat more diverse than the previous studies with respect to both race and ethnicity (59% White, 12% Black, 18% Hispanic, and 4% Asian) and education (34% with a bachelor’s or higher degree). The result of the 4.9 percent figure is far higher than usual estimates of intersex prevalence, but it was not possible to determine whether this was due to the overrepresentation of LGBT respondents or misreporting because there was no follow-up question to assess specific intersex variations or the rate of false positives.ref

“The 2020 Pennsylvania LGBT Health Needs Assessment, a biannual community-based survey using convenience sampling that was conducted in a partnership between the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Bradbury-Sullivan LGBT Community Center, included an intersex status question. This question was also based on a simplified version of the first GenIUSS question: “Were you born intersex, or with a variation of sex characteristics or sex development?” This question does not rely on medical verification of intersex status, and this study was novel in its use in a larger sample (N = 6,582) and broader LGBT community setting. The “yes” rate was 1.7 percent, which is the highest estimate of intersex prevalence in the academic literature. However, as with the Center for American Progress study, there was no follow-up question to assess specific intersex variation or the rate of false positives. The question had a 0.29 percent nonresponse rate. Respondents were predominantly White (83.8%) and educated (56.6% held a bachelor’s or higher degrees). Of note, 27 percent of respondents identified as transgender, nonbinary, genderqueer, or gender fluid.ref

DSD Disorder of Sex Development/Difference of Sex Development

“The first question new parents ask is “Is it a boy or a girl?” However, for an estimated 1 in 2,000 children born each year, this is a difficult question to answer. These are children born with a disorder of sex development (DSD) – a group of about 60 conditions in which biological sex, or being male or female, is not clear. Before birth, in the first weeks of pregnancy, females and males look nearly identical. Then, because of a complicated interaction between genes and chemicals called hormones, the differences we have come to expect slowly take shape. A DSD is a mismatch between a child’s chromosomes, or genetic material, and the appearance of the child’s genitals. A child may present with a DSD in infancy, childhood or adolescence. Previously, DSDs were called “intersex” conditions. This means “between the sexes.” However, this term felt uncomfortable to some people with who identified themselves as strongly male or strongly female.” ref

“Note: Most people with a DSD prefer the term “Difference” of Sex Development rather than “Disorder,” because the word “disorder” implies that there is something “wrong” with the person rather than a natural variation.” ref

DSD Terminology

The term disorders of sex development has generally been accepted by the medical community, as well as being a popular term in literature. However, the term is not universal among patients or support groups. One study stated that it can affect individuals covered by the description in a negative way, and that the terminology might impact choice and utilization of health care providers. Another study found that most affected individuals did not find the term offensive. The ICD-11, which is the World Health Organization‘s international guide to medical coding (effective as of January 1, 2022), references DSDs as intersex traits or conditions, as do some medical journals. The Council of Europe and Inter-American Commission on Human Rights have called for a review of medical classifications that unnecessarily medicalize intersex traits.ref

“The DSD as a model was advocated for by intersex advocates to include all variation of atypical sexual development. Specifically the DSD exists as replacement for the “optimum gender rearing model,” which was the standard model for individuals with atypical sexual development. This model stated goal was to assign a gender binary, usually female via non-consensual medicalization, often via the falsification of medical records. After the publication of individuals who had undergone the OGR model and had gone through serious physiological distress, (such as David Reimer), the model was discredited. The term “disorders of sexual development” was chosen to reflect the variation of sexual development over differences which effects all individuals, this however has been controversial, with many instead opting for “differentiation” or “variation.ref

“Sociological research in Australia on 272 “people born with atypical sex characteristics,” published in 2016, found that 3% of respondents used the term “disorders of sex development” or “DSD” to define their sex characteristics, while 21% use the term when accessing medical services. In contrast, 60% used the term “intersex” in some form to self-describe their sex characteristics. U.S. research by the Lurie Children’s Hospital, Chicago, and the AIS-DSD Support Group (now InterConnect Support Group) published in 2017 found that “disorders of sex development” terminology may negatively affect care, give offense, and result in lower attendance at medical clinics. A “dsd-LIFE” study in 2020 found that around 69% of 1,040 participants did not think the term disorders of sex development was offensive.ref

The term DSD if a self-label, used while still acknowledging others have the right to use Intersex, and not denying intersex exists, would then not be offensive to me either but if DSD is used or forced, in order to deny or remove intersex is offensive to me.

Human rights and community concerns

“The term DSD (and particularly its association with medical disorders) has been controversial. The argument over terminology reflects a deeper disagreement over the extent to which intersex conditions require medical intervention, the appropriateness of certain interventions, and whether physicians and parents should make irreversible treatment decisions on behalf of young children if the condition is not life-threatening.ref

  • “The use of the term disorder of sex development (DSD) is controversial among many activists and community organizations due to the label “disorders”. Many governments and international institutions use the term ‘intersex’ in preference to ‘DSD’, or have called for the review of medical classifications. In May 2019, more than 50 intersex-led organizations signed a multilingual joint statement condemning the introduction of “disorders of sex development” language into the International Classification of Diseases, stating that this causes “harm” and facilitates human rights violations, calling on the World Health Organization to publish clear policy to ensure that intersex medical interventions are “fully compatible with human rights norms.ref
  • “Lee et al. in a 2006 Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders proposed a system of nomenclature based on “disorders of sex development” for clinical use, suggesting that “terms such as intersex, pseudohermaphroditism, hermaphroditism, sex reversal, and gender-based diagnostic labels are particularly controversial,” may be perceived as pejorative, and are confusing to practitioners and parents alike. However, research by the Lurie Children’s Hospital, Chicago, and the AIS-DSD Support Group published in 2017 found that affected persons, and care givers, object to the term, and that this may impact choice, access, and utilization of health care providers. Australian sociological research on people born with atypical sex characteristics, published in 2016, found that 3% of respondents choose the term “disorders of sex development” or “DSD” to define their sex characteristics, while 21% use the term when accessing medical services. In contrast, 60% used the term “intersex” in some form to self-describe their sex characteristics.ref
  • “A committee of the Senate of Australia found that labelling intersex as “pejorative” appeared to be a post-hoc rationalisation in the 2006 Consensus statement. It recommended a review of clinical use of the term.
  • “Alternative terms have been offered: Milton Diamond has suggested the use of “variation” or of “difference”, Elizabeth Reis has suggested “divergence”; Liao and Simmonds suggest “diverse sex development”. The latter suggestions would retain the initial D in DSD.ref
  • “The 2006 Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders stated that evidence for early surgery for cosmetic reasons is lacking, outcomes include “decreased sexual sensitivity” and long term outcome data is absent. A 2016 Global Disorders of Sex Development Update since 2006 states that there is “still no consensual attitude regarding indications, timing, procedure and evaluation of outcome of DSD surgery” and “no evidence regarding the impact of surgically treated or non-treated DSDs during childhood for the individual, the parents, society or the risk of stigmatization.ref
  • “In 2013, Juan E. Méndez, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, condemned “irreversible sex assignment, involuntary sterilization, involuntary genital normalizing surgery, performed without their informed consent, or that of their parents, ‘in an attempt to fix their sex'” stating that “members of sexual minorities are disproportionately subjected to torture and other forms of ill-treatment because they fail to conform to socially constructed gender expectations.ref
  • “In May 2014, the World Health Organization issued a joint statement on Eliminating forced, coercive and otherwise involuntary sterilization, An interagency statement with the OHCHR, UN Women, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, and UNICEF. Referencing the involuntary surgical “sex-normalizing or other procedures” on “intersex persons”, the report recommends a range of guiding principles for medical treatment, including ensuring patient autonomy in decision-making, ensuring non-discrimination, accountability, and access to remedies.ref
  • “During 2015, the Council of Europe and Inter-American Commission on Human Rights called for a review of medical classifications that may unnecessarily medicalize intersex traits, an end to medical interventions without consent, and improved disclosure. The Council of Europe’s Human Rights Commissioner recommended:

National and international medical classifications which pathologise variations in sex characteristics should be reviewed with a view to eliminating obstacles to the effective enjoyment, by intersex persons, of human rights, including the right to the highest attainable standard of health.ref

Clinical disagreements about the term

“While the 2006 clinical consensus statement that introduced the term, its 2016 update, included some sex chromosome anomalies within the term DSD, the inclusion of those conditions is opposed by some clinicians. Medical historian David Griffiths has identified continued controversy about the relationship between sex chromosome variations and intersex/DSD classifications. Similarly, some clinicians have proposed that congenital adrenal hyperplasia be excluded. Human rights advocate Morgan Carpenter has remarked that this proposal appears motivated by support for contentious medical interventions.ref

“A member of the legal committee for the World Professional Association for Transgender Health and co-founder of the Australian and New Zealand Professional Association for Transgender Health has described “transsexualism” as “an intersex condition and a disorder of sexual development therapeutically medically treated by hormonal therapy and Genital Reassignment Surgery” Such views are contested.ref

Patient support and advocacy organizations

Notable patient support and advocacy organizations include:




• Caminar intersex (España -islas Canarias)

Latin America

North America



Intersex Human Rights

Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals, that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies.” Intersex persons often face stigmatisation and discrimination from birth, particularly when an intersex variation is visible. In some countries this may include infanticide, abandonment and the stigmatization of families. Mothers in East Africa may be accused of witchcraft, and the birth of an intersex child may be described as a curse.” ref

“Intersex infants and children, such as those with ambiguous outer genitalia, may be surgically and/or hormonally altered to fit perceived more socially acceptable sex characteristics. However, this is considered controversial, with no firm evidence of good outcomes. Such treatments may involve sterilization. Adults, including elite female athletes, have also been subjects of such treatment. These issues are recognized as human rights abuses, with statements from UN agencies, the Australian parliament, and German and Swiss ethics institutions. Intersex organizations have also issued joint statements over several years, including the Malta declaration by the third International Intersex Forum.” ref

“Implementation of human rights protections in legislation and regulation has progressed more slowly. In 2011, Christiane Völling won the first successful case brought against a surgeon for non-consensual surgical intervention. In 2015, the Council of Europe recognized for the first time a right for intersex persons to not undergo sex assignment treatment. In April 2015, Malta became the first country to outlaw nonconsensual medical interventions to modify sex anatomy, including that of intersex people. Other human rights and legal issues include the right to life, protection from discrimination, standing to file in law and compensation, access to information, and legal recognition. Few countries so far protect intersex people from discrimination.” ref

“Research indicates a growing consensus that diverse intersex bodies are normal—if relatively rare—forms of human biology, and human rights institutions are placing increasing scrutiny on medical practices and issues of discrimination against intersex people. A 2013 first international pilot study. Human Rights between the Sexes, by Dan Christian Ghattas, found that intersex people are discriminated against worldwide:

Intersex individuals are considered individuals with a “disorder” in all areas in which Western medicine prevails. They are more or less obviously treated as sick or “abnormal”, depending on the respective society.” ref

“The Council of Europe highlights several areas of concern:

  • Equal right to life and prevention of medical treatments without informed consent including treatments considered unnecessary;
  • Removal of Intersex as a curable medical condition but one which can have medical treatments with informed consent
  • Equal treatment under the law; including specific legal provision similar to other classes covered;
  • Access to information, medical records, peer and other counselling and support;
  • Self-determination in gender recognition, through expeditious access to official documents.” ref

“Intersex people face stigmatisation and discrimination from birth. In some countries, particularly in Africa and Asia, this may include infanticide, abandonment and the stigmatization of families. In 2017, the human rights non-governmental organizations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch published major reports on the rights of children with intersex conditions. Mothers in East Africa may be accused of witchcraft, and the birth of an intersex child may be described as a curse. Abandonments and infanticides have been reported in Uganda, Kenya, south Asia, and China. In 2015, it was reported that an intersex Kenyan adolescent, Muhadh Ishmael, was mutilated and later died. He had previously been described as a curse on his family.ref

“Non-consensual medical interventions to modify the sex characteristics of intersex people take place in all countries where the human rights of intersex people have been explored. Such interventions have been criticized by the World Health Organization, other UN bodies such as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and an increasing number of regional and national institutions. In low and middle income countries, the cost of healthcare may limit access to necessary medical treatment at the same time that other individuals experience coercive medical interventions.ref

“Several rights have been stated as affected by stigmatization and coercive medical interventions on minors:

  • the right to life.
  • the right to privacy, including a right to personal autonomy or self-determination regarding medical treatment.
  • prohibitions against torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.
  • a right to physical integrity and/or bodily autonomy.
  • additionally, the best interests of the child may not be served by surgeries aimed at familial and social integration.ref

“In recent years, Intersex rights have been the subject of reports by several national and international institutions. These include the Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics (2012), the UN special rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (2013), and the Australian Senate (2013). In 2015 the Council of Europe, the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the World Health Organization also addressed the issue. In April 2015, Malta became the first country to outlaw coercive medical interventions. In the same year, the Council of Europe became the first institution to state that intersex people have the right not to undergo sex affirmation interventions.ref

“For Intersex Awareness Day, October 26, UN experts including the Committee against Torture, the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, along with the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and United Nations Special Rapporteurs called for an urgent end to human rights violations against intersex persons, including in medical settings. The experts also called for the investigation of alleged human rights abuses, the ability to file claims for compensation, and the implementation of anti-discrimination measures:

In countries around the world, intersex infants, children and adolescents are subjected to medically unnecessary surgeries, hormonal treatments and other procedures in an attempt to forcibly change their appearance to be in line with societal expectations about female and male bodies. When, as is frequently the case, these procedures are performed without the full, free and informed consent of the person concerned, they amount to violations of fundamental human rights… States must, as a matter of urgency, prohibit medically unnecessary surgery and procedures on intersex children. They must uphold the autonomy of intersex adults and children and their rights to health, to physical and mental integrity, to live free from violence and harmful practices and to be free from torture and ill-treatment. Intersex children and their parents should be provided with support and counselling, including from peers.ref

Intersex Right to life

“In 2015, the Council of Europe published an Issue Paper on Human rights and intersex people, remarking:

Intersex people’s right to life can be violated in discriminatory “sex selection” and “preimplantation genetic diagnosis, other forms of testing, and selection for particular characteristics”. Such de-selection or selective abortions are incompatible with ethics and human rights standards due to the discrimination perpetrated against intersex people on the basis of their sex characteristics.” ref

Protection from discrimination

“A handful of jurisdictions so far provide explicit protection from discrimination for intersex people. South Africa was the first country to explicitly add intersex to legislation, as part of the attribute of “sex”. Australia was the first country to add an independent attribute, of “intersex status”. Malta was the first to adopt a broader framework of “sex characteristics, through legislation that also ended modifications to the sex characteristics of minors undertaken for social and cultural reasons. Bosnia-Herzegovina listed as “sex characteristics” Greece prohibits discrimination and hate crimes based on “sex characteristics”, since 24 December 2015. Since 2021, Serbia also prohibits discrimination based on “sex characteristics”. Since 2022, Chile bans discrimination based on “sex characteristics” under Law 21,430.ref

Intersex and Education

“An Australian survey of 272 persons born with atypical sex characteristics, published in 2016, found that 18% of respondents (compared to an Australian average of 2%) failed to complete secondary school, with early school leaving coincident with pubertal medical interventions, bullying, and other factors.ref

Intersex and Employment

“A 2015 Australian survey of people born with atypical sex characteristics found high levels of poverty, in addition to very high levels of early school leaving, and higher than average rates of disability. An Employers guide to intersex inclusion published by Pride in Diversity and Organisation Intersex International Australia also discloses cases of discrimination in employment.ref

Intersex and Healthcare

“Discrimination protection intersects with involuntary and coercive medical treatment. Maltese protections on grounds of sex characteristics provides explicit protection against unnecessary and harmful modifications to the sex characteristics of children. In May 2016, the United States Department of Health and Human Services issued a statement explaining Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act stating that the Act prohibits “discrimination on the basis of intersex traits or atypical sex characteristics” in publicly funded healthcare, as part of a prohibition of discrimination “on the basis of sex”.ref

Intersex and Sports

“In 2013, it was disclosed in a medical journal that four unnamed elite female athletes from developing countries were subjected to gonadectomies (sterilization) and partial clitoridectomies (female genital mutilation) after testosterone testing revealed that they had an intersex condition. Testosterone testing was introduced in the wake of the Caster Semenya case, of a South African runner subjected to testing due to her appearance and vigor. There is no evidence that innate hyperandrogenism in elite women athletes confers an advantage in sport. While Australia protects intersex persons from discrimination, the Act contains an exemption in sport.ref

Intersex and Access to Information

With the rise of modern medical science in Western societies, many intersex people with ambiguous external genitalia have had their genitalia surgically modified to resemble either female or male genitals. Surgeons pinpointed the birth of intersex babies as a “social emergency”. A secrecy-based model was also adopted, in the belief that this was necessary to ensure “normal” physical and psychosocial development. Disclosure also included telling people that they would never meet anyone else with the same condition. Access to medical records has also historically been challenging. Yet the ability to provide free, informed consent depends on the availability of information.” ref

“The Council of Europe and World Health Organization acknowledge the necessity for improvements in information provision, including access to medical records. Some intersex organizations claim that secrecy-based models have been perpetuated by a shift in clinical language to disorders of sex development. Morgan Carpenter of Organisation Intersex International Australia quotes the work of Miranda Fricker on “hermeneutical injustice” where, despite new legal protections from discrimination on grounds of intersex status, “someone with lived experience is unable to even make sense of their own social experiences” due to the deployment of clinical language and “no words to name the experience.” ref

Intersex and Legal Recognition

“According to the Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions, few countries have provided for the legal recognition of intersex people. In some jurisdictions, access to any form of identification document can be an issue. The Forum states that the legal recognition of intersex people is:

  • firstly about access to the same rights as other men and women, when assigned male or female;
  • secondly it is about access to administrative corrections to legal documents when an original sex assignment is not appropriate; and
  • thirdly, while opt in schemes may help some individuals, legal recognition is not about the creation of a third sex or gender classification for intersex people as a population, but instead is about enabling an opt-in scheme for any individual who seeks it.” ref

Intersex and Gender identities

“Like all individuals, some intersex individuals may be raised as a particular sex (male or female) but then identify with another later in life, while most do not. Like non-intersex people, some intersex individuals may not identify themselves as either exclusively female or exclusively male. A 2012 clinical review suggests that between 8.5-20% of persons with intersex conditions may experience gender dysphoria, while sociological research in Australia, a country with a third ‘X’ sex classification, shows that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics selected an “X” or “other” option, while 52% are women, 23% men and 6% unsure.” ref

Access to identification documents and Intersex 

“Depending on the jurisdiction, access to any birth certificate may be an issue, including a birth certificate with a sex marker. In 2014, in the case of Baby ‘A’ (Suing through her Mother E.A) & another v Attorney General & 6 others [2014], a Kenyan court ordered the Kenyan government to issue a birth certificate to a five-year-old child born in 2009 with ambiguous genitalia. In Kenya a birth certificate is necessary for attending school, getting a national identity document, and voting. Many intersex persons in Uganda are understood to be stateless due to historical difficulties in obtaining identification documents, despite a birth registration law that permits intersex minors to change assignment.” ref

Intersex Access to the same rights as other men and women

“The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions states that:

Recognition before the law means having legal personhood and the legal protections that flow from that. For intersex people, this is neither primarily nor solely about amending birth registrations or other official documents. Firstly, it is about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same legal rights as other men and women.” ref

Binary Categories and Intersex

“Access to a birth certificate with a correct sex marker may be an issue for people who do not identify with their sex assigned at birth, or it may only be available accompanied by surgical requirements. The passports and identification documents of Australia and some other nationalities have adopted “X” as a valid third category besides “M” (male) and “F” (female), at least since 2003. In 2013, Germany became the first European nation to allow babies with characteristics of both sexes to be registered as indeterminate gender on birth certificates, amidst opposition and skepticism from intersex organisations who point out that the law appears to mandate exclusion from male or female categories. The Council of Europe acknowledged this approach, and concerns about recognition of third and blank classifications in a 2015 Issue Paper, stating that these may lead to “forced outings” and “lead to an increase in pressure on parents of intersex children to decide in favour of one sex.” ref 

“The Issue Paper argues that “further reflection on non-binary legal identification is necessary”:

Mauro Cabral, Global Action for Trans Equality (GATE) Co-Director, indicated that any recognition outside the “F”/”M” dichotomy needs to be adequately planned and executed with a human rights point of view, noting that:

“People tend to identify a third sex with freedom from the gender binary, but that is not necessarily the case. If only trans and/or intersex people can access that third category, or if they are compulsively assigned a third sex, then the gender binary gets stronger, not weaker” ref

Relationship between Intersex and LGBT

“Multiple organizations have highlighted appeals to LGBT rights recognition that fail to address the issue of unnecessary “normalising” treatments on intersex children, using the portmanteau term “pinkwashing“. In June 2016, Organisation Intersex International Australia pointed to contradictory statements by Australian governments, suggesting that the dignity and rights of LGBTI (LGBT and intersex) people are recognized while, at the same time, harmful practices on intersex children continue. In August 2016, Zwischengeschlecht described actions to promote equality or civil status legislation without action on banning “intersex genital mutilations” as a form of “pinkwashing”. The organization has previously highlighted evasive government statements to UN Treaty Bodies that conflate intersex, transgender and LGBT issues, instead of addressing harmful practices on infants.” ref

Intersex people are born with sex characteristics (such as genitalsgonads, and chromosome patterns) that “do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies”. They are substantially more likely to identify as lesbiangaybisexual, or transgender (LGBT) than the non-intersex population, with an estimated 52% identifying as non-heterosexual and 8.5% to 20% experiencing gender dysphoria. Although many intersex people are heterosexual and cisgender, this overlap and “shared experiences of harm arising from dominant societal sex and gender norms” has led to intersex people often being included under the LGBT umbrella, with the acronym sometimes expanded to LGBTI. Some intersex activists and organisations have criticized this inclusion as distracting from intersex-specific issues such as involuntary medical interventions.” ref

“Intersex can be contrasted with homosexuality or same-sex attraction. Numerous studies have shown higher rates of same sex attraction in intersex people, with a recent Australian study of people born with atypical sex characteristics finding that 52% of respondents were non-heterosexual.ref

“Clinical research on intersex subjects has been used to investigate means of preventing homosexuality. In 1990, Heino Meyer-Bahlburg wrote on a “prenatal hormone theory of sexual orientation.” The author discussed research finding higher rates of same sex attraction among women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and consistent sexual attraction to men among women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome – a population described by the author as “genetic males.” Meyer-Bahlburg also discussed sexual attraction by individuals with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5α-Reductase deficiency and 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency, stating that sexual attraction towards females in individuals with these conditions was facilitated by “prenatal exposure to and utilization of androgens.ref 

“He concluded:

It is too early to conclude that there is a pre- or perinatal hormonal contribution to the development of homosexuality, except perhaps in persons with clearcut physical signs of intersexuality. The scientific basis is insufficient to justify the assessment of chromosomes and sex hormones in the fetus, or the prenatal treatment with sex hormones, for the purpose of preventing the development of homosexuality, quite apart from the ethical issues involved.ref

“In 2010, Saroj Nimkarn and Maria New wrote that, “Gender-related behaviors, namely childhood play, peer association, career and leisure time preferences in adolescence and adulthood, maternalism, aggression, and sexual orientation become” masculinized in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Medical intervention to prevent such traits has been likened by Dreger, Feder, and Tamar-Mattis to a means of preventing homosexuality and “uppity women.” A poll of intersex youth in the US by The Trevor Project found that 55% of intersex youth identify as bisexual/pansexual, 28% gay/lesbian, 12% queer, 2% straight, and 3% questioning. The poll sampled primarily LGBTQ youth.ref

Queer bodies and Intersex

“Intersex activists and scholars such as Morgan Holmes, Katrina Karkazis, and Morgan Carpenter have identified heteronormativity in medical rationales for medical interventions on infants and children with intersex characteristics. Holmes and Carpenter have sometimes talked of intersex bodies as “queer bodies”, while Carpenter also stresses inadequacies and “dangerous” consequences from framing intersex as a sexual orientation or gender identity issue. In What Can Queer Theory Do for Intersex? Iain Morland contrasts queer “hedonic activism” with an experience of insensate post-surgical intersex bodies to claim that “queerness is characterized by the sensory interrelation of pleasure and shame.ref

Intersex and transgender

Very Supportive of all Genders and Sexualities

I am heterosexual, not gay or bi, Or you could say I am a Gynesexual, which means one born only attracted to women (for me only Cis women). But I am very supportive of all genders and sexualities (between consenting adults). Why is this so hard for some people?

Transgender Support Challenge

“Damien AtHope, my only problem with transgender is just that, my problem. They got a right (to quote Chuck Berry), they can do their thing, it’s their scene. What I don’t understand, and it’s my problem, not theirs, and therfore, it doesn’t really matter, is like Jenner there still has the penis. I was told that what happens with some of these cats is that somehow they don’t see a penis there, they see a vagina. So if you’re going to transgender, why keep the penis? Again, my problem.” – Challenger

My response, Not understanding can often be a problem, a good choice is to ask, real, talk in a positive attitude towards true understanding. I will not speak to specifically about what it is to be transgender people. I will however use my experience of being an intersex genderqueer male, and yes all three must be understood to accurately reflect the ontology (the thingness of things or its qualities) of what, why, and how. I try to never believe what I think about things I am uninformed and when this involves beliefs I may or may not even investigate as I at some point can use rational ignorance but if it’s about people who do matter, this compels me to understand as I don’t want to harm others. I can say we rarely can understand that which it different. We humans are a scared social creatures. We must champion surpassing this as it is in this we are then not just can we and should honor the dignity, but so to do we gain understanding how to start improving your universal emotive valuing and honoring the people who touch your life. I try to see it like this, I realize that my life is written as evidence of my character. I wish to care first with others but I tell you I have a flourishing humanity. This is like the feeling of having someone you care or love telling you they love you back. I burst inside with deep and calm joy as you will understand that now by trying to understand others I started understanding me, started seeing my value, becoming my own friend, I started to love me. I see we have to understand, love, and show kindness. The sad truth is that in my past, I used to not even care to understand and now I truly see its value connection of understanding, love, and kindness. What we don’t understand we come to fear, that which we fear we too often feel justified to hate, that which we hate we too often not just oppose it we wish to discriminate against it, oppress, and or destroy it. May I never again be that person, it shames me that I ever was. Now I will address your posed question but in my gender. I don’t nor have I ever been just a male. I don’t feel trans either. How many times have I cried not understanding why me? Why am I not normal, I was made fun of and shamed I stopped doing PE (school athletics) which they abused for my inner sex condition of looking like I don’t even have a dick if not hard. I received an f in PE because I didn’t do anything as I did not want to take my clothes. I also feel like my brain is two genders that are enmeshed and fluctuate between of some times one and the other like a team, yet at other times it is like that are fighting one having one thinking and the other completely opposed. To tell you at times I can feel overwhelmed by this but I learned to try and understand and now that I understand it is easier. I just love them for who we are. May I always see others with eyes of love. I hope this helped you understand. 

“Theists, there has to be a god, as something can not come from nothing.”

Well, thus something (unknown) happened and then there was something. This does not tell us what the something that may have been involved with something coming from nothing. A supposed first cause, thus something (unknown) happened and then there was something is not an open invitation to claim it as known, neither is it justified to call or label such an unknown as anything, especially an unsubstantiated magical thinking belief born of mythology and religious storytelling.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

While hallucinogens are associated with shamanism, it is alcohol that is associated with paganism.

The Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries Shows in the prehistory series:

Show one: Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses.

Show two: Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show tree: Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show four: Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show five: Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show six: Emergence of hierarchy, sexism, slavery, and the new male god dominance: Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves!

Show seven: Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State)

Show eight: Paganism 4,000 years old: Moralistic gods after the rise of Statism and often support Statism/Kings: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism)

Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses: VIDEO

Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Pre-Capitalism): VIDEO

Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves: VIEDO

Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State): VIEDO

Paganism 4,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism): VIEDO

I do not hate simply because I challenge and expose myths or lies any more than others being thought of as loving simply because of the protection and hiding from challenge their favored myths or lies.

The truth is best championed in the sunlight of challenge.

An archaeologist once said to me “Damien religion and culture are very different”

My response, So are you saying that was always that way, such as would you say Native Americans’ cultures are separate from their religions? And do you think it always was the way you believe?

I had said that religion was a cultural product. That is still how I see it and there are other archaeologists that think close to me as well. Gods too are the myths of cultures that did not understand science or the world around them, seeing magic/supernatural everywhere.

I personally think there is a goddess and not enough evidence to support a male god at Çatalhöyük but if there was both a male and female god and goddess then I know the kind of gods they were like Proto-Indo-European mythology.

This series idea was addressed in, Anarchist Teaching as Free Public Education or Free Education in the Public: VIDEO

Our 12 video series: Organized Oppression: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of power (9,000-4,000 years ago), is adapted from: The Complete and Concise History of the Sumerians and Early Bronze Age Mesopotamia (7000-2000 BC): by “History with Cy

Show #1: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Samarra, Halaf, Ubaid)

Show #2: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Eridu: First City of Power)

Show #3: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Uruk and the First Cities)

Show #4: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (First Kings)

Show #5: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Early Dynastic Period)

Show #6: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (King Lugalzagesi and the First Empire)

Show #7: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Sargon and Akkadian Rule)

Show #8: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Naram-Sin, Post-Akkadian Rule, and the Gutians)

Show #9: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Gudea of Lagash and Utu-hegal)

Show #10: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Third Dynasty of Ur / Neo-Sumerian Empire)

Show #11: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Amorites, Elamites, and the End of an Era)

Show #12: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Aftermath and Legacy of Sumer)

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

The “Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries”

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ Atheist Leftist @Skepticallefty & I (Damien Marie AtHope) @AthopeMarie (my YouTube & related blog) are working jointly in atheist, antitheist, antireligionist, antifascist, anarchist, socialist, and humanist endeavors in our videos together, generally, every other Saturday.

Why Does Power Bring Responsibility?

Think, how often is it the powerless that start wars, oppress others, or commit genocide? So, I guess the question is to us all, to ask, how can power not carry responsibility in a humanity concept? I know I see the deep ethical responsibility that if there is power their must be a humanistic responsibility of ethical and empathic stewardship of that power. Will I be brave enough to be kind? Will I possess enough courage to be compassionate? Will my valor reach its height of empathy? I as everyone, earns our justified respect by our actions, that are good, ethical, just, protecting, and kind. Do I have enough self-respect to put my love for humanity’s flushing, over being brought down by some of its bad actors? May we all be the ones doing good actions in the world, to help human flourishing.

I create the world I want to live in, striving for flourishing. Which is not a place but a positive potential involvement and promotion; a life of humanist goal precision. To master oneself, also means mastering positive prosocial behaviors needed for human flourishing. I may have lost a god myth as an atheist, but I am happy to tell you, my friend, it is exactly because of that, leaving the mental terrorizer, god belief, that I truly regained my connected ethical as well as kind humanity.

Cory and I will talk about prehistory and theism, addressing the relevance to atheism, anarchism, and socialism.

At the same time as the rise of the male god, 7,000 years ago, there was also the very time there was the rise of violence, war, and clans to kingdoms, then empires, then states. It is all connected back to 7,000 years ago, and it moved across the world.

Cory Johnston:  

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist (YouTube)

Cory Johnston: Mind of a Skeptical Leftist @Skepticallefty

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist By Cory Johnston: “Promoting critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics by covering current events and talking to a variety of people. Cory Johnston has been thoughtfully talking to people and attempting to promote critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics.”

Cory needs our support. We rise by helping each other.

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ @Skepticallefty Evidence-based atheist leftist (he/him) Producer, host, and co-host of 4 podcasts @skeptarchy @skpoliticspod and @AthopeMarie

Damien Marie AtHope (“At Hope”) Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist. Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Poet, Philosopher, Advocate, Activist, Psychology, and Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Historian.

Damien is interested in: Freedom, Liberty, Justice, Equality, Ethics, Humanism, Science, Atheism, Antiteism, Antireligionism, Ignosticism, Left-Libertarianism, Anarchism, Socialism, Mutualism, Axiology, Metaphysics, LGBTQI, Philosophy, Advocacy, Activism, Mental Health, Psychology, Archaeology, Social Work, Sexual Rights, Marriage Rights, Woman’s Rights, Gender Rights, Child Rights, Secular Rights, Race Equality, Ageism/Disability Equality, Etc. And a far-leftist, “Anarcho-Humanist.”

I am not a good fit in the atheist movement that is mostly pro-capitalist, I am anti-capitalist. Mostly pro-skeptic, I am a rationalist not valuing skepticism. Mostly pro-agnostic, I am anti-agnostic. Mostly limited to anti-Abrahamic religions, I am an anti-religionist.

To me, the “male god” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 7,000 years ago, whereas the now favored monotheism “male god” is more like 4,000 years ago or so. To me, the “female goddess” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 11,000-10,000 years ago or so, losing the majority of its once prominence around 2,000 years ago due largely to the now favored monotheism “male god” that grow in prominence after 4,000 years ago or so.

My Thought on the Evolution of Gods?

Animal protector deities from old totems/spirit animal beliefs come first to me, 13,000/12,000 years ago, then women as deities 11,000/10,000 years ago, then male gods around 7,000/8,000 years ago. Moralistic gods around 5,000/4,000 years ago, and monotheistic gods around 4,000/3,000 years ago. 

To me, animal gods were likely first related to totemism animals around 13,000 to 12,000 years ago or older. Female as goddesses was next to me, 11,000 to 10,000 years ago or so with the emergence of agriculture. Then male gods come about 8,000 to 7,000 years ago with clan wars. Many monotheism-themed religions started in henotheism, emerging out of polytheism/paganism.

“Animism” is needed to begin supernatural thinking.
“Totemism” is needed for supernatural thinking connecting human actions & related to clan/tribe.
“Shamanism” is needed for supernatural thinking to be controllable/changeable by special persons.
Together = Gods/paganism

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

Damien Marie AtHope (Said as “At” “Hope”)/(Autodidact Polymath but not good at math):

Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist, Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Jeweler, Poet, “autodidact” Philosopher, schooled in Psychology, and “autodidact” Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Pre-Historian (Knowledgeable in the range of: 1 million to 5,000/4,000 years ago). I am an anarchist socialist politically. Reasons for or Types of Atheism

My Website, My Blog, & Short-writing or QuotesMy YouTube, Twitter: @AthopeMarie, and My Email:

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