I hear the undeserved things about John Hoopes (@KUHoopes, Department of Anthropology, University of Kansas), who Graham Hancock thinks is “the most vehement and insulting of all archaeologists”

But I think he is great because he addresses Pseudoarchaeology, Pseudohistory, and Pseudoscience. I had felt like I was one of the only ones trying to fight such nonsense online, until I found John Hoopes, like a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow. I admire John Hoopes.

John W Hoopes

University of Kansas Anthropology Faculty Member

Between July 1 and December 31, 2017, John was a Visiting Professor and Greenleaf Distinguished Chair of Latin American Studies at Tulane University in New Orleans, with an appointment through the Roger Thayer Stone Center of Latin American Studies and the Middle American Research Institute. You can learn more about my program at the University of Kansas at http://anthropology.ku.edu

John Hoopes’ principal training is in archaeology and my interests include Pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica, the Isthmo-Colombian Area, the Pan-Caribbean Area, northern South America, and the Central Andes. John has been focusing on the native cultures of Costa Rica for most of his career.  John is developing an archaeological field project at Nuevo Corinto, an ancient village in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Costa Rica.

John Hoopes’ current research interests include interpretations of Pre-Columbian art and iconography, “shamanism,” and popular perceptions of archaeology as manifest in pseudoarchaeology, pseudoscience, and mythology in contemporary culture.

Here is a direct quote from Hancock: “having devoted so much of his time to studying me, John Hoopes is better qualified than perhaps any other archaeologist to offer a solid, well-researched critique of my work.” ref

Here is a response to the educational efforts of John Hoopes (@KUHoopes) against Pseudoarchaeology. Just look at this sad foolish thinker, who seems to know nothing about archaeologists, and the good people they generally are. And who are championing the truth, like all science!

Here is another: CMpaugh @CMpaugh Replying to @Graham__Hancock, “The establishment never likes to be challenged. Archaeology isn’t a true science. It is a synthesis of sociology, biology, and geology. Archaeology doesn’t like it when geologists tell them dates are wrong or biologists tell them DNA contradicts theories. You’re in good company.”


John Hoopes @KUHoopes (Response on Twitter): “Archaeology isn’t a true science. It is a synthesis of sociology, biology, and geology.” As Josh Billings said: “The trouble with most folks isn’t their ignorance. It’s knowin’ so many things that ain’t so.” #ArchaeologyTwitter

My response (Damien Marie AtHope) And even if archaeology does involve sociology, so… All those listed are science. “sociology, is a social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the processes that preserve and change them.” https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociology

Here are some Twitter posts by John Hoopes:

“Graham Hancock’s unfair and unwarranted disparagement of archaeologists in #AncientApocalypse actively harms archaeology in the public eye at a time when archaeologists struggle to pay their bills and raise their families. Few archaeologists are fat cats like him. #PunchingDown” () – John Hoopes

“Reject racism and white supremacy in all of its forms. #WeRemember” () – John Hoopes

(Anti-science movements are often fuelled by their own unseen psychological reactions to “uncertainty” in the world. At the same time creating a fictional monolith or “straw man” version of science being overly “certain”. – Sam Leeming @SamLeeming) This is why the anti-science claims made by Graham Hancock in #AncientApocalypse are devious and misleading.” () – John Hoopes

“I’m so proud of the people on Twitter who are pitching in with their knowledge, expertise, and patience to battle ignorance, gullibility, and stupidity each day. Thanks for fighting the good fight to repair this broken world. #Pseudoarchaeology #ArchaeologyTwitter” () – John Hoopes

You know which archaeologist Graham Hancock never mentions? Australian archaeologist V. Gordon Childe. I wonder if he even knows who Childe was. V. Gordon Childe spent most of his career at the University of Edinburgh, where he was renowned for being neither orthodox nor dogmatic, but quite the opposite. Graham Hancock was born in Edinburgh in 1950. Childe died in Australia in 1957. Sad.” () – John Hoopes

“Who’s the most dogmatic, orthodox archaeologist you can think of? I nominate Ian Hodder.” () – John Hoopes

“Graham Hancock likes to go off about how Göbekli Tepe and other early Holocene sites in southeastern Turkey prove that archaeologists were wrong. To the contrary, they prove that archaeologist Robert Braidwood was right.” () – John Hoopes

“Part of the reason I tweet so often about Graham Hancock’s false claims is to defend Ofer’s legacy. He was truly a great man. The Society of American Archaeology has started a new scholarship fund to honor the memory of archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef. If you want to learn about the transition from hunting and gathering to farming, his research is key. It was an honor to know him.” () – John Hoopes

“I read this in graduate school at Harvard in the 1980s. Presumably, this is the “orthodox dogma” against which Graham Hancock argues. It still makes for a good read. The Rise of Civilization: From Early Farmers to Urban Society in the Ancient Near East: LINK” () – John Hoopes

“We also read this 1975 book by archaeologist James Mellaart. While his career was tainted with scandal, this provides an excellent summary overview: a good baseline upon which to add fifty years of additional research. The Neolithic of the Near East: LINK” () – John Hoopes

(Science as a belief system. Rupert Sheldrake’s brilliant talk, here brilliantly illustrated by After Skool, reveals the truth about scientific dogma. Much food for thought… – Graham Hancock)Whenever Graham Hancock mentions “dogma,” he’s projecting. The only people more close-minded than Hancock fans are religious zealots.” () – John Hoopes

In fact, Graham Hancock styles himself as “the outsider” about whom Colin Wilson wrote as a literary critic in 1956. Wilson went on to become a prolific author of books promoting the occult, the paranormal, and pseudoarchaeology. This is Hancock’s path.” () – John Hoopes

“This 2016 biography of Colin Wilson (Beyond the Robot: The Life and Work of Colin Wilson) by @GaryLachman helps put Graham Hancock’s work in context. Pseudoarchaeology as a literary genre that sits between bad science and bad science fiction merits more attention as a cultural phenomenon, especially in light of contemporary politics. Unfortunately, a lot of it is just really poorly written.” () – John Hoopes

“Three weeks before I offered to talk with the press about #AncientApocalypse, this interview with @KurlyTlapoyawa and @tlakatekatl on the @AztlantisTales podcast first aired. Graham Hancock was an outspoken promoter of the “Maya Apocalypse” (12/21/12). (EPISODE 39: REMEMBERING THE MAYA APOCALYPSE W/ DR. JOHN HOOPES!)” () – John Hoopes

“I posted this FAQ about the “Maya Apocalypse” on December 30, 2011. Graham Hancock was one of the chief promoters of this misinformation starting in 1995. What You Should Know About 2012: Answers to 13 Questions – Is it really time for the Apocalypse?” () – John Hoopes

“This is an especially revealing conversation about 2012 between Daniel Pinchbeck and Graham Hancock. This is should make it clear how they were using the 2012-related mythology in order to promote a spiritual agenda. This was recorded about 17 years ago. (

“The “2012 phenomenon” was focused on the date of December 21, 2012. The 10th anniversary of that date passed over a month ago. #AncientApocalypse premiered on November 11, 2022.

“This provides a clear and unambiguous test: a well-documented one. What did they say would happen? What actually happened (or did not happen)? What does that tell us? (Beyond 2012: Catastrophe or Ecstasy – A Complete Guide to End-of-time Predictions)

“I am curious to know how many times Graham Hancock has written to the Times, the New York Times, the Washington Post, or other major media to ask them to run an opinion piece from him about how ancient people warned us that the world is going to be destroyed by comets sometime soon. I’m skeptical that Graham Hancock has ever believed that the catastrophic destruction of civilization is coming. I think it’s always been just a big, long scam to take money from ignorant and gullible people. If someone truly believed that the end was nigh, wouldn’t they do everything possible to warn people? Hancock has been pretty complacent about it for a long time now. He only mentions it in the context of other goods he’s selling, often as a kind of an afterthought. If there was a 40-year window around December 21, 2012, we’ve only got a decade more. If I truly believed that, I think I’d be pretty agitated by now. (

“In fact, Graham Hancock locates one of the cradles of civilization on Mars. He wrote that a Martian civilization was destroyed by a catastrophe and its refugees came to Earth to start a new one here.

I think Graham Hancock may also be a Social Darwinist, since he wants us to do… something… to avoid what he thinks will be a forthcoming cosmic catastrophe.

“Graham Hancock also pushes a model based on the concept of a unitary origin of civilization. He also places a “cradle of civilization” sometime during the Pleistocene. Maybe more than once.

“Graham Hancock is also a Perennialist whose cosmology of continuous cyclical episodes of destruction and rebirth, including a coming New Age, differs from linear models of progress.

Original artwork by @AnnaGoldfield of @dirtpodcast. Learn archaeology by listening! Get stuff as “The Dirt Shirt StoreSupport archaeologists. Buy the stickers!

I (Damien Marie AtHope) laugh every time I see this sticker. I never got the “Atlantis” fascination so many people express.

“12,000 years from now, someone will claim to have found the remains of the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The story of Atlantis is fascinating, but I want to know the truth behind the story of Jack and the Beanstalk. Trying to identify the real Atlantis is like trying to identify the real Tom Sawyer or the real Harry Potter. Plato wasn’t writing history. “Once upon a time…” It’s more fun to think about the possibilities of winged horses. What is the implication of “advanced”? I contend it often means “white.” Part of the appeal of Atlantis for white Europeans is that it places a white civilization earlier than Egypt (Africa) or Mesopotamia (Middle East). Here’s a sobering thought: Even more people believe the Garden of Eden was a real place. But Athens wasn’t anywhere near 9000 years old when Plato wrote the story of Atlantis and Athens was a big part of the story. How often does an imaginary tale begin with, “This is a true story that really happened”? And the Jedi existed a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away…

“Graham Hancock’s theories are a lot like those of James Churchward a century ago. Every generation has one. Here is a treasure trove of data for researching #pseudoarchaeology. ancientamerican.com/backissues.html This link is from the My-Mu website, created and maintained by the great-grandson of James Churchward. #Mu my-mu.com And Graham Hancock’s books are like really fat supermarket tabloids, only smaller.

(It’s funny how the people who didn’t give a shit about bio, chem, math, and physics in high school are now mad that the people who did give a shit are, somehow, smarter than them…? – We Are Borg @MarioOLewis) Graham Hancock’s followers in a nutshell.

Graham Hancock’s unfair and unwarranted disparagement of archaeologists in #AncientApocalypse actively harms archaeology in the public eye at a time when archaeologists struggle to pay their bills and raise their families. Few archaeologists are fat cats like him. #PunchingDown Most archaeologists are not wealthy. Practically every archaeologist knows what it’s like to subsist for months on rice and beans, canned tuna, peanut butter, and ramen noodles while sleeping on a cot and shitting in a Port-A-Potty or a hole in the ground. Most archaeologists scrimp and save, counting on stretching their per diem and logging motel chain points and frequent flier miles to supplement their meager incomes. Either that, or they manage by adjunct teaching, a grueling row to hoe, all because they love archaeology. By devaluing archaeologists in the eyes of the public, Graham Hancock is taking their rent money, gas money, and grocery money. It hurts the profession and is grossly unfair to hardworking graduate students and recent MAs and PhDs who are struggling to start their careers. Plus, he is doing this just as archaeologists of color are entering the profession of archaeology in record numbers. Coincidence? Well, you’d benefit from knowing more about the history of Graham Hancock’s ideas. It goes back a long way. People who deny that Graham Hancock’s hyperdiffusionism in #AncientApocalypse aligns with racist and white supremacist narratives really need to know more about the books of Josiah Priest, especially “American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West.

“Cable television producers and writers have shown little interest in telling the stories of archaeologists. Archaeologists have tried to get series for years, but without success. If it’s not about monsters or treasures, nobody wants it.

“Another, more recent example would be W. J. Perry who, like Graham Hancock, traced global civilizations to ancient Egypt. He still did that a century ago. If anything, Hancock is reviving antiquated, Victorian, colonialist language and concepts that most archaeologists discarded long ago. His work is a throwback to a century or more ago, not anything current or forward-looking. If you need examples of Graham Hancock’s throwback ideas, just compare his theories to those of Augustus Le Plongeon in the late 19th century. They both gave similar dates, with similar logic, to Atlantis.

“Forget Graham Hancock. This excellent book by the late Bruce Trigger will help you understand what we really know about ancient civilizations. (Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study) 

“We need to deeply rethink how we present these cultures to the public. It can seem that including or using the word “ancient,” is a persistent euphemism for “non-Christian.” “It’s not like you can say that you aren’t interested in Graham Hancock. You think about him constantly.” Not constantly at all, but it is an intriguing cultural phenomenon. I first got interested in Atlantis when I was in the 10th grade in 1973. It’s been 50 years. 

“Confused about what’s real knowledge and what’s not? What’s good anthropology and what’s not? Check out this insightful new book by @skeptanth. (Misanthropology: Science, Pseudoscience, and the Study of Humanity) It’s a great book to build a whole course around. I love the combination of a Boasian vision of anthropology and critical thinking.

“On top of it all, Graham Hancock is an inveterate Catastrophist who thinks that both geological and human history can be explained primarily with reference to global catastrophes. That’s a really old way of thinking.

John Hoopes @KUHoopes· The thematic section in the latest issue of The SAA Archaeological Record has contributions by @JenniferRaff, @cfeagans, @JasonColavito, @ahtzib, @DSAArchaeology, and John Hoopes @KUHoopes. Pseudoarchaeology, Scholarship, and Popular Interests in the Past in the Present

Here is the “INTRODUCTION” by John W. Hoopes (hoopes@ku.edu) a professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Kansas. 

“Graham Hancock’s book America Before: The Key to Earth’s Lost Civilization, released by St. Martin’s Press, a leading trade book publisher, came into print on April 23, 2019, less than two weeks after the 84th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Albuquerque, New Mexico. An interview on The Joe Rogan Experience podcast (#1,284) preceded its release, followed by a six-week national book tour, whose stops included Albuquerque on April 25, 2019. At the time of this writing (September 30, 2019), America Before is ranked #1 in Native American religion and #2 in prehistory on Amazon, while the podcast on YouTube has had 5,199,192 views. It makes assertions that actively contradict and criticize professional archaeology. While new theories and constructive criticism are welcome, misrepresentations of archaeological data and interpretations are not. The following articles do not specifically review America Before or similar works of pseudoarchaeology. Instead, they seek to place this material in a broader context and make it easier to answer questions from students, journalists, or members of the general public that derive from incorrect information.” ref

“Hancock’s principal assertion is that a Late Pleistocene civilization existed in the Americas whose material culture
was comparable to that of nineteenth-century Europe. This civilization, Hancock argues, had the additional benefit of
psychic abilities, including telepathy, telekinesis (for moving megaliths), remote viewing, and magical healing powers.
He claims it was destroyed by a direct hit from a cluster of meteorites that initiated the Younger Dryas, in the process
causing the simultaneous extinction of Clovis culture and Pleistocene megafauna, extinguishing superior ancient
knowledge, and causing widespread cultural amnesia from which we have yet to recover. Hancock suggests that this
civilization had its roots in a far older population, whose remains include the assemblage associated with the Cerutti
mastodon, purportedly dating to around 130,000 BP, and having Denisovan DNA. For Hancock, this “lost civilization” of mound builders explains archaeological features at Poverty Point, Great Serpent Mound, and Cahokia, as well as
the earthworks of the Xingu region of Brazil, the decorated megaliths at Göbelki Tepe in Turkey, and the Great Pyramid.
It represented a culture of seafarers whose travels extended to northern Europe, Egypt, and the South Pacific. Hancock
asserts that if we deny its existence we are doomed to a similar, catastrophic fate. He also asserts that archaeologists are
intentionally hiding the truth. Though professional archaeologists will likely find such arguments absurd, many readers and podcast listeners insist that Hancock’s assertions are credible.” ref

“His 10 books on topics ranging from the Ark of the Covenant to monuments on Mars and Upper Paleolithic shamanism have made him the most popular author in the genre of “fringe archaeology” since Erich von Däniken, and he has an active fan base. His popularity is enhanced by his promotion of the use of psychedelic substances, especially ayahuasca, a traditional beverage from Amazonia. America Before cites and critiques academic research by specialists in archaeology, anthropological genetics, geoarchaeology, and archaeoastronomy. Its copious endnotes and extensive bibliography selectively introduce readers to “orthodox” archaeology while asserting that its conclusions are wrong, and falsely suggesting that professional archaeologists are unwilling to change our minds when persuasive new data and new ideas emerge. To the public, this looks like academic scholarship when it is not, contributing to confusion. We intend our articles in this special thematic section of the SAA Archaeological Record to place this material within a deeper historical context, one informed by a familiarity with the Western esoteric tradition, folklore about paranormal and supernatural phenomena, the impacts of popular culture on scientific literacy, the misuse of scientific data, and persistent beliefs in mythological explanations about the ancient past.” ref

“We assert that fringe beliefs should receive even greater attention as topics of valid academic inquiry. Pseudoarchaeology
actively promotes myths that are routinely used in the service of white supremacy, racialized nationalism, colonialism,
and the dispossession and oppression of indigenous peoples. While it is easy to mock and dismiss fringe theories, from
Bigfoot to Atlantis to ancient aliens, appearances of elitism or superiority harm legitimate archaeology and turn public
opinion against us. We need to be mindful of the cultural trends that generate interest in this material and the effects
that these have on all of us. It behooves us to understand what claims are being made and why and to formulate effective
strategies to address them. These are relevant not only for winning essential public support for archaeology and promoting responsible science education but for encouraging archaeologists to become directly engaged with some of the principal debates and controversies of our times.” ref

I (Damien Marie AtHope) want to support John Hoopes as well as anthropology and archaeology in general. 

I (Damien Marie AtHope) think We need more people like John Hoopes. I think John Hoopes is great.

“There are others with similar knowledge, but they don’t often speak up. However, I’ve got an especially relevant background. I wrote my first research paper ever for a high school English class on the subject of Atlantis. That was almost fifty years ago, in 1973-74. Just before I started graduate school at Harvard, I was hired as a research assistant to help an anthropology professor develop a popular course on pseudoarchaeology. That was over forty years ago, in 1982.” – John Hoopes

Just because Graham Hancock thinks John Hoopes is “the most vehement and insulting of all archaeologists,” and feels insulted by John Hoopes challenging his ideas doesn’t mean John Hoopes actively insulting anyone.

All alternative ideas of any kind in any thinking or claims hold the burden of proof. People including John Hoopes should challenge and Graham Hancock should happily provide evidence or sound reasoning, he does not.

“Part of the reason I won’t debate him is because I don’t want to spend time explaining basic concepts such as Occam’s razor, falsifiability, scientific method, burden of proof, cherry-picking, confirmation bias, and all of the logical fallacies in which he engages. It’s essential information, but has no entertainment value, so is boring to an audience.” – John Hoopes

I (Damien Marie AtHope) understand it is a lot of work with such unjustified thinkers and conspiracists. I will not debate anyone but will do discussions as I always want to be open to changing my thinking if needed and think others should also want to follow truth over opinions found lacking in evidence. I feel you don’t have to debate him I think it is good you post info challenging him and others. I would like you even if you challenged me as I love deep thinking and have an open mind that desires truth.

John Hoopes told me he has been thinking about using this as the basis for giving specific examples of how Hancock uses every one of these. He preys upon people’s susceptibility to logical fallacies. And I told him, “Hell YES, do that, I will share them all.”

John Hoopes said to me, “Graham Hancock’s theories are readily dismissed with a simple application of Occam’s razor, which is how archaeology operates. “Entities are not to be multiplied without necessity” (Non sunt multiplicanda entia sine necessitate). We don’t need to postulate a lost civilization of the Ice Age to explain anything. The same goes for aliens, of course.”

Occam’s razor

“The phrase Occam’s razor did not appear until a few centuries after William of Ockham’s death in 1347. Libert Froidmont, in his On Christian Philosophy of the Soul, takes credit for the phrase, speaking of “novacula occami“. Ockham did not invent this principle, but the “razor”—and its association with him—may be due to the frequency and effectiveness with which he used it. Ockham stated the principle in various ways, but the most popular version, “Entities are not to be multiplied without necessity” (Non sunt multiplicanda entia sine necessitate) was formulated by the Irish Franciscan philosopher John Punch in his 1639 commentary on the works of Duns Scotus.” ref 

“Occam’s razor, Ockham’s razor, or Ocham’s razor (Latin: novacula Occami) in philosophy is the problem-solving principle that recommends searching for explanations constructed with the smallest possible set of elements. It is also known as the principle of parsimony or the law of parsimony (Latin: lex parsimoniae). Attributed to William of Ockham, a 14th-century English philosopher, and theologian, it is frequently cited as Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem, which translates as “Entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity”, although Occam never used these exact words. Popularly, the principle is sometimes paraphrased incorrectly as “The simplest explanation is usually the best one.ref

“This philosophical razor advocates that when presented with competing hypotheses about the same prediction, one should select the solution with the fewest assumptions, and that this is not meant to be a way of choosing between hypotheses that make different predictions. Similarly, in science, Occam’s razor is used as an abductive heuristic in the development of theoretical models rather than as a rigorous arbiter between candidate models.ref

“In the scientific method, Occam’s razor is not considered an irrefutable principle of logic or a scientific result; the preference for simplicity in the scientific method is based on the falsifiability criterion. For each accepted explanation of a phenomenon, there may be an extremely large, perhaps even incomprehensible, number of possible and more complex alternatives. Since failing explanations can always be burdened with ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified, simpler theories are preferable to more complex ones because they tend to be more testable.ref

John W. Hoopes Ph.D.


John W. Hoopes, Ph.D., has taught at University of Kansas since 1989, where he has served as Acting Director for the Center of Latin American Studies (1996-97) and Director of the Global Indigenous Nations Studies Program (2008-11). He teaches both graduate and undergraduate courses on the archaeology of ancient Mexico, Central America, and South America as well as on shamanism and the history of anthropology. Prof. Hoopes’ course “Archaeological Myths & Realities” teaches critical thinking using examples of problematic interpretations of the ancient past. He was awarded the W.T. Kemper Fellowship for excellence in teaching in 2008.” ref

“Prof. Hoopes received his B.A. in Archaeology at Yale University in 1980, where his principal advisor was Michael Coe. Prof. Hoopes completed his Ph.D. under the direction of Gordon Willey at Harvard in 1987. His dissertation, “Early Ceramics and the Origins of Village Life in Lower Central America,” focused on the earliest known pottery in Costa Rica. The research for it was conducted during his participation in a project directed by Payson Sheets of the University of Colorado.” ref

“Prof. Hoopes has conducted fieldwork in Costa Rica since 1978, having worked on projects in several different parts of the country. He is currently co-director of a project undertaking archaeological investigations of Nuevo Corinto, the remains of an ancient village in the Caribbean lowlands of northeastern Costa Rica. In addition to Central America, Prof. Hoopes has done archaeological fieldwork in Ecuador (with a project under the direction of Scott Raymond of the University of Calgary), Virginia, and New Mexico. He’s the author of numerous articles and the co-editor of two books, The Emergence of Pottery (Smithsonian Press, 1995) and Gold and Power in Ancient Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia (Dumbarton Oaks, 2003).” ref

“Prof. Hoopes was one of the presenters at the Texas Maya Meetings at UT-Austin this past March and he was also featured in “Apocalypse 2012,” a film directed by Cynthia Banks for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation that’s been airing fairly regularly on CNBC. He’s been interviewed for two other documentaries on 2012, one directed by Graham Townsley for the Discovery Channel Latin America and another directed by Paul Murton of Timeline Films for Channel 4 in the UK (neither of which has yet been released). Prof. Hoopes also co-authored a paper that will appear in a special 2012-themed issue of the German journal Zeitschrift für Anomalistik and has been working on a book-length MS. about the history of the 2012 phenomenon.” ref

“His longstanding interest in pseudoarchaeology, pseudoscience, and critical thinking stemmed from a youthful fascination with the writings of Erich von Däniken and Carlos Castaneda in the early 1970s. While a graduate student at Harvard, Hoopes assisted Prof. Stephen Williams with the development of a popular undergraduate course called “Fantastic Archaeology” (the content of which was later used in a book by Williams with the same title). His interest in the 2012 phenomenon was provoked by participation at the Burning Man festival in 2002, 2003, and 2005, where Prof. Hoopes learned about its contemporary manifestations. Since 2004, Prof. Hoopes has been a regular participant and sometime moderator of the Year 2012 discussion forum at http://2012.tribe.netref

John Hoopes forgot to mention in our video that his 16-year-old Facebook account was permanently suspended in 2021 for their stupid errors in repeatedly misidentifying his posts as “violating Community Standards” when they did not. John also had a Twitter profile with >30K followers permanently suspended in November for an obvious parody of Elon Musk.

I understand how it feels. I was permanently removed from Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn. I am surprised I still am allowed to post on Twitter. I am sure that they just forgot… lol

I started as an activist in 2006, after turning atheist in college due to facts, and stopped around 15 years later on 12/18/21. Now I teach as outreach.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

People don’t commonly teach religious history, even that of their own claimed religion. No, rather they teach a limited “pro their religion” history of their religion from a religious perspective favorable to the religion of choice. 

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

Do you truly think “Religious Belief” is only a matter of some personal choice?

Do you not see how coercive one’s world of choice is limited to the obvious hereditary belief, in most religious choices available to the child of religious parents or caregivers? Religion is more commonly like a family, culture, society, etc. available belief that limits the belief choices of the child and that is when “Religious Belief” is not only a matter of some personal choice and when it becomes hereditary faith, not because of the quality of its alleged facts or proposed truths but because everyone else important to the child believes similarly so they do as well simply mimicking authority beliefs handed to them. Because children are raised in religion rather than being presented all possible choices but rather one limited dogmatic brand of “Religious Belief” where children only have a choice of following the belief as instructed, and then personally claim the faith hereditary belief seen in the confirming to the belief they have held themselves all their lives. This is obvious in statements asked and answered by children claiming a faith they barely understand but they do understand that their family believes “this or that” faith, so they feel obligated to believe it too. While I do agree that “Religious Belief” should only be a matter of some personal choice, it rarely is… End Hereditary Religion!

Opposition to Imposed Hereditary Religion

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art


Animism: Respecting the Living World by Graham Harvey 

“How have human cultures engaged with and thought about animals, plants, rocks, clouds, and other elements in their natural surroundings? Do animals and other natural objects have a spirit or soul? What is their relationship to humans? In this new study, Graham Harvey explores current and past animistic beliefs and practices of Native Americans, Maori, Aboriginal Australians, and eco-pagans. He considers the varieties of animism found in these cultures as well as their shared desire to live respectfully within larger natural communities. Drawing on his extensive casework, Harvey also considers the linguistic, performative, ecological, and activist implications of these different animisms.” ref

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

We are like believing machines we vacuum up ideas, like Velcro sticks to almost everything. We accumulate beliefs that we allow to negatively influence our lives, often without realizing it. Our willingness must be to alter skewed beliefs that impend our balance or reason, which allows us to achieve new positive thinking and accurate outcomes.

My thoughts on Religion Evolution with external links for more info:

“Religion is an Evolved Product” and Yes, Religion is Like Fear Given Wings…

Atheists talk about gods and religions for the same reason doctors talk about cancer, they are looking for a cure, or a firefighter talks about fires because they burn people and they care to stop them. We atheists too often feel a need to help the victims of mental slavery, held in the bondage that is the false beliefs of gods and the conspiracy theories of reality found in religions.

“Understanding Religion Evolution: Animism, Totemism, Shamanism, Paganism & Progressed organized religion”

Understanding Religion Evolution:

“An Archaeological/Anthropological Understanding of Religion Evolution”

It seems ancient peoples had to survived amazing threats in a “dangerous universe (by superstition perceived as good and evil),” and human “immorality or imperfection of the soul” which was thought to affect the still living, leading to ancestor worship. This ancestor worship presumably led to the belief in supernatural beings, and then some of these were turned into the belief in gods. This feeble myth called gods were just a human conceived “made from nothing into something over and over, changing, again and again, taking on more as they evolve, all the while they are thought to be special,” but it is just supernatural animistic spirit-belief perceived as sacred.


Quick Evolution of Religion?

Pre-Animism (at least 300,000 years ago) pre-religion is a beginning that evolves into later Animism. So, Religion as we think of it, to me, all starts in a general way with Animism (Africa: 100,000 years ago) (theoretical belief in supernatural powers/spirits), then this is physically expressed in or with Totemism (Europe: 50,000 years ago) (theoretical belief in mythical relationship with powers/spirits through a totem item), which then enlists a full-time specific person to do this worship and believed interacting Shamanism (Siberia/Russia: 30,000 years ago) (theoretical belief in access and influence with spirits through ritual), and then there is the further employment of myths and gods added to all the above giving you Paganism (Turkey: 12,000 years ago) (often a lot more nature-based than most current top world religions, thus hinting to their close link to more ancient religious thinking it stems from). My hypothesis is expressed with an explanation of the building of a theatrical house (modern religions development). Progressed organized religion (Egypt: 5,000 years ago)  with CURRENT “World” RELIGIONS (after 4,000 years ago).

Historically, in large city-state societies (such as Egypt or Iraq) starting around 5,000 years ago culminated to make religion something kind of new, a sociocultural-governmental-religious monarchy, where all or at least many of the people of such large city-state societies seem familiar with and committed to the existence of “religion” as the integrated life identity package of control dynamics with a fixed closed magical doctrine, but this juggernaut integrated religion identity package of Dogmatic-Propaganda certainly did not exist or if developed to an extent it was highly limited in most smaller prehistoric societies as they seem to lack most of the strong control dynamics with a fixed closed magical doctrine (magical beliefs could be at times be added or removed). Many people just want to see developed religious dynamics everywhere even if it is not. Instead, all that is found is largely fragments until the domestication of religion.

Religions, as we think of them today, are a new fad, even if they go back to around 6,000 years in the timeline of human existence, this amounts to almost nothing when seen in the long slow evolution of religion at least around 70,000 years ago with one of the oldest ritual worship. Stone Snake of South Africa: “first human worship” 70,000 years ago. This message of how religion and gods among them are clearly a man-made thing that was developed slowly as it was invented and then implemented peace by peace discrediting them all. Which seems to be a simple point some are just not grasping how devastating to any claims of truth when we can see the lie clearly in the archeological sites.

I wish people fought as hard for the actual values as they fight for the group/clan names political or otherwise they think support values. Every amount spent on war is theft to children in need of food or the homeless kept from shelter.

Here are several of my blog posts on history:

I am not an academic. I am a revolutionary that teaches in public, in places like social media, and in the streets. I am not a leader by some title given but from my commanding leadership style of simply to start teaching everywhere to everyone, all manner of positive education. 

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

To me, Animism starts in Southern Africa, then to West Europe, and becomes Totemism. Another split goes near the Russia and Siberia border becoming Shamanism, which heads into Central Europe meeting up with Totemism, which also had moved there, mixing the two which then heads to Lake Baikal in Siberia. From there this Shamanism-Totemism heads to Turkey where it becomes Paganism.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art


Not all “Religions” or “Religious Persuasions” have a god(s) but

All can be said to believe in some imaginary beings or imaginary things like spirits, afterlives, etc.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

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Low Gods “Earth” or Tutelary deity and High Gods “Sky” or Supreme deity

“An Earth goddess is a deification of the Earth. Earth goddesses are often associated with the “chthonic” deities of the underworldKi and Ninhursag are Mesopotamian earth goddesses. In Greek mythology, the Earth is personified as Gaia, corresponding to Roman Terra, Indic Prithvi/Bhūmi, etc. traced to an “Earth Mother” complementary to the “Sky Father” in Proto-Indo-European religionEgyptian mythology exceptionally has a sky goddess and an Earth god.” ref

“A mother goddess is a goddess who represents or is a personification of naturemotherhoodfertilitycreationdestruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth. When equated with the Earth or the natural world, such goddesses are sometimes referred to as Mother Earth or as the Earth Mother. In some religious traditions or movements, Heavenly Mother (also referred to as Mother in Heaven or Sky Mother) is the wife or feminine counterpart of the Sky father or God the Father.” ref

Any masculine sky god is often also king of the gods, taking the position of patriarch within a pantheon. Such king gods are collectively categorized as “sky father” deities, with a polarity between sky and earth often being expressed by pairing a “sky father” god with an “earth mother” goddess (pairings of a sky mother with an earth father are less frequent). A main sky goddess is often the queen of the gods and may be an air/sky goddess in her own right, though she usually has other functions as well with “sky” not being her main. In antiquity, several sky goddesses in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Near East were called Queen of Heaven. Neopagans often apply it with impunity to sky goddesses from other regions who were never associated with the term historically. The sky often has important religious significance. Many religions, both polytheistic and monotheistic, have deities associated with the sky.” ref

“In comparative mythology, sky father is a term for a recurring concept in polytheistic religions of a sky god who is addressed as a “father”, often the father of a pantheon and is often either a reigning or former King of the Gods. The concept of “sky father” may also be taken to include Sun gods with similar characteristics, such as Ra. The concept is complementary to an “earth mother“. “Sky Father” is a direct translation of the Vedic Dyaus Pita, etymologically descended from the same Proto-Indo-European deity name as the Greek Zeûs Pater and Roman Jupiter and Germanic Týr, Tir or Tiwaz, all of which are reflexes of the same Proto-Indo-European deity’s name, *Dyēus Ph₂tḗr. While there are numerous parallels adduced from outside of Indo-European mythology, there are exceptions (e.g. In Egyptian mythology, Nut is the sky mother and Geb is the earth father).” ref

Tutelary deity

“A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation. The etymology of “tutelary” expresses the concept of safety and thus of guardianship. In late Greek and Roman religion, one type of tutelary deity, the genius, functions as the personal deity or daimon of an individual from birth to death. Another form of personal tutelary spirit is the familiar spirit of European folklore.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) iKorean shamanismjangseung and sotdae were placed at the edge of villages to frighten off demons. They were also worshiped as deities. Seonangshin is the patron deity of the village in Korean tradition and was believed to embody the SeonangdangIn Philippine animism, Diwata or Lambana are deities or spirits that inhabit sacred places like mountains and mounds and serve as guardians. Such as: Maria Makiling is the deity who guards Mt. Makiling and Maria Cacao and Maria Sinukuan. In Shinto, the spirits, or kami, which give life to human bodies come from nature and return to it after death. Ancestors are therefore themselves tutelaries to be worshiped. And similarly, Native American beliefs such as Tonás, tutelary animal spirit among the Zapotec and Totems, familial or clan spirits among the Ojibwe, can be animals.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) in Austronesian beliefs such as: Atua (gods and spirits of the Polynesian peoples such as the Māori or the Hawaiians), Hanitu (Bunun of Taiwan‘s term for spirit), Hyang (KawiSundaneseJavanese, and Balinese Supreme Being, in ancient Java and Bali mythology and this spiritual entity, can be either divine or ancestral), Kaitiaki (New Zealand Māori term used for the concept of guardianship, for the sky, the sea, and the land), Kawas (mythology) (divided into 6 groups: gods, ancestors, souls of the living, spirits of living things, spirits of lifeless objects, and ghosts), Tiki (Māori mythologyTiki is the first man created by either Tūmatauenga or Tāne and represents deified ancestors found in most Polynesian cultures). ” ref, ref, ref, ref, ref, ref, ref

Mesopotamian Tutelary Deities can be seen as ones related to City-States 

“Historical city-states included Sumerian cities such as Uruk and UrAncient Egyptian city-states, such as Thebes and Memphis; the Phoenician cities (such as Tyre and Sidon); the five Philistine city-states; the Berber city-states of the Garamantes; the city-states of ancient Greece (the poleis such as AthensSpartaThebes, and Corinth); the Roman Republic (which grew from a city-state into a vast empire); the Italian city-states from the Middle Ages to the early modern period, such as FlorenceSienaFerraraMilan (which as they grew in power began to dominate neighboring cities) and Genoa and Venice, which became powerful thalassocracies; the Mayan and other cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica (including cities such as Chichen ItzaTikalCopán and Monte Albán); the central Asian cities along the Silk Road; the city-states of the Swahili coastRagusa; states of the medieval Russian lands such as Novgorod and Pskov; and many others.” ref

“The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BCE; also known as Protoliterate period) of Mesopotamia, named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia and the Sumerian civilization. City-States like Uruk and others had a patron tutelary City Deity along with a Priest-King.” ref

Chinese folk religion, both past, and present, includes myriad tutelary deities. Exceptional individuals, highly cultivated sages, and prominent ancestors can be deified and honored after death. Lord Guan is the patron of military personnel and police, while Mazu is the patron of fishermen and sailors. Such as Tu Di Gong (Earth Deity) is the tutelary deity of a locality, and each individual locality has its own Earth Deity and Cheng Huang Gong (City God) is the guardian deity of an individual city, worshipped by local officials and locals since imperial times.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) in Hinduism, personal tutelary deities are known as ishta-devata, while family tutelary deities are known as Kuladevata. Gramadevata are guardian deities of villages. Devas can also be seen as tutelary. Shiva is the patron of yogis and renunciants. City goddesses include: Mumbadevi (Mumbai), Sachchika (Osian); Kuladevis include: Ambika (Porwad), and Mahalakshmi. In NorthEast India Meitei mythology and religion (Sanamahism) of Manipur, there are various types of tutelary deities, among which Lam Lais are the most predominant ones. Tibetan Buddhism has Yidam as a tutelary deity. Dakini is the patron of those who seek knowledge.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) The Greeks also thought deities guarded specific places: for instance, Athena was the patron goddess of the city of Athens. Socrates spoke of hearing the voice of his personal spirit or daimonion:

You have often heard me speak of an oracle or sign which comes to me … . This sign I have had ever since I was a child. The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything, and this is what stands in the way of my being a politician.” ref

“Tutelary deities who guard and preserve a place or a person are fundamental to ancient Roman religion. The tutelary deity of a man was his Genius, that of a woman her Juno. In the Imperial era, the Genius of the Emperor was a focus of Imperial cult. An emperor might also adopt a major deity as his personal patron or tutelary, as Augustus did Apollo. Precedents for claiming the personal protection of a deity were established in the Republican era, when for instance the Roman dictator Sulla advertised the goddess Victory as his tutelary by holding public games (ludi) in her honor.” ref

“Each town or city had one or more tutelary deities, whose protection was considered particularly vital in time of war and siege. Rome itself was protected by a goddess whose name was to be kept ritually secret on pain of death (for a supposed case, see Quintus Valerius Soranus). The Capitoline Triad of Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva were also tutelaries of Rome. The Italic towns had their own tutelary deities. Juno often had this function, as at the Latin town of Lanuvium and the Etruscan city of Veii, and was often housed in an especially grand temple on the arx (citadel) or other prominent or central location. The tutelary deity of Praeneste was Fortuna, whose oracle was renowned.” ref

“The Roman ritual of evocatio was premised on the belief that a town could be made vulnerable to military defeat if the power of its tutelary deity were diverted outside the city, perhaps by the offer of superior cult at Rome. The depiction of some goddesses such as the Magna Mater (Great Mother, or Cybele) as “tower-crowned” represents their capacity to preserve the city. A town in the provinces might adopt a deity from within the Roman religious sphere to serve as its guardian, or syncretize its own tutelary with such; for instance, a community within the civitas of the Remi in Gaul adopted Apollo as its tutelary, and at the capital of the Remi (present-day Rheims), the tutelary was Mars Camulus.” ref 

Household deity (a kind of or related to a Tutelary deity)

“A household deity is a deity or spirit that protects the home, looking after the entire household or certain key members. It has been a common belief in paganism as well as in folklore across many parts of the world. Household deities fit into two types; firstly, a specific deity – typically a goddess – often referred to as a hearth goddess or domestic goddess who is associated with the home and hearth, such as the ancient Greek Hestia.” ref

“The second type of household deities are those that are not one singular deity, but a type, or species of animistic deity, who usually have lesser powers than major deities. This type was common in the religions of antiquity, such as the Lares of ancient Roman religion, the Gashin of Korean shamanism, and Cofgodas of Anglo-Saxon paganism. These survived Christianisation as fairy-like creatures existing in folklore, such as the Anglo-Scottish Brownie and Slavic Domovoy.” ref

“Household deities were usually worshipped not in temples but in the home, where they would be represented by small idols (such as the teraphim of the Bible, often translated as “household gods” in Genesis 31:19 for example), amulets, paintings, or reliefs. They could also be found on domestic objects, such as cosmetic articles in the case of Tawaret. The more prosperous houses might have a small shrine to the household god(s); the lararium served this purpose in the case of the Romans. The gods would be treated as members of the family and invited to join in meals, or be given offerings of food and drink.” ref

“In many religions, both ancient and modern, a god would preside over the home. Certain species, or types, of household deities, existed. An example of this was the Roman Lares. Many European cultures retained house spirits into the modern period. Some examples of these include:

“Although the cosmic status of household deities was not as lofty as that of the Twelve Olympians or the Aesir, they were also jealous of their dignity and also had to be appeased with shrines and offerings, however humble. Because of their immediacy they had arguably more influence on the day-to-day affairs of men than the remote gods did. Vestiges of their worship persisted long after Christianity and other major religions extirpated nearly every trace of the major pagan pantheons. Elements of the practice can be seen even today, with Christian accretions, where statues to various saints (such as St. Francis) protect gardens and grottos. Even the gargoyles found on older churches, could be viewed as guardians partitioning a sacred space.” ref

“For centuries, Christianity fought a mop-up war against these lingering minor pagan deities, but they proved tenacious. For example, Martin Luther‘s Tischreden have numerous – quite serious – references to dealing with kobolds. Eventually, rationalism and the Industrial Revolution threatened to erase most of these minor deities, until the advent of romantic nationalism rehabilitated them and embellished them into objects of literary curiosity in the 19th century. Since the 20th century this literature has been mined for characters for role-playing games, video games, and other fantasy personae, not infrequently invested with invented traits and hierarchies somewhat different from their mythological and folkloric roots.” ref

“In contradistinction to both Herbert Spencer and Edward Burnett Tylor, who defended theories of animistic origins of ancestor worship, Émile Durkheim saw its origin in totemism. In reality, this distinction is somewhat academic, since totemism may be regarded as a particularized manifestation of animism, and something of a synthesis of the two positions was attempted by Sigmund Freud. In Freud’s Totem and Taboo, both totem and taboo are outward expressions or manifestations of the same psychological tendency, a concept which is complementary to, or which rather reconciles, the apparent conflict. Freud preferred to emphasize the psychoanalytic implications of the reification of metaphysical forces, but with particular emphasis on its familial nature. This emphasis underscores, rather than weakens, the ancestral component.” ref

William Edward Hearn, a noted classicist, and jurist, traced the origin of domestic deities from the earliest stages as an expression of animism, a belief system thought to have existed also in the neolithic, and the forerunner of Indo-European religion. In his analysis of the Indo-European household, in Chapter II “The House Spirit”, Section 1, he states:

The belief which guided the conduct of our forefathers was … the spirit rule of dead ancestors.” ref

“In Section 2 he proceeds to elaborate:

It is thus certain that the worship of deceased ancestors is a vera causa, and not a mere hypothesis. …

In the other European nations, the Slavs, the Teutons, and the Kelts, the House Spirit appears with no less distinctness. … [T]he existence of that worship does not admit of doubt. … The House Spirits had a multitude of other names which it is needless here to enumerate, but all of which are more or less expressive of their friendly relations with man. … In [England] … [h]e is the Brownie. … In Scotland this same Brownie is well known. He is usually described as attached to particular families, with whom he has been known to reside for centuries, threshing the corn, cleaning the house, and performing similar household tasks. His favorite gratification was milk and honey.” ref

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art


“These ideas are my speculations from the evidence.”

I am still researching the “god‘s origins” all over the world. So you know, it is very complicated but I am smart and willing to look, DEEP, if necessary, which going very deep does seem to be needed here, when trying to actually understand the evolution of gods and goddesses. I am sure of a few things and less sure of others, but even in stuff I am not fully grasping I still am slowly figuring it out, to explain it to others. But as I research more I am understanding things a little better, though I am still working on understanding it all or something close and thus always figuring out more. 

Sky Father/Sky God?

“Egyptian: (Nut) Sky Mother and (Geb) Earth Father” (Egypt is different but similar)

Turkic/Mongolic: (Tengri/Tenger Etseg) Sky Father and (Eje/Gazar Eej) Earth Mother *Transeurasian*

Hawaiian: (Wākea) Sky Father and (Papahānaumoku) Earth Mother *Austronesian*

New Zealand/ Māori: (Ranginui) Sky Father and (Papatūānuku) Earth Mother *Austronesian*

Proto-Indo-European: (Dyus/Dyus phtr) Sky Father and (Dʰéǵʰōm/Plethwih) Earth Mother

Indo-Aryan: (Dyaus Pita) Sky Father and (Prithvi Mata) Earth Mother *Indo-European*

Italic: (Jupiter) Sky Father and (Juno) Sky Mother *Indo-European*

Etruscan: (Tinia) Sky Father and (Uni) Sky Mother *Tyrsenian/Italy Pre–Indo-European*

Hellenic/Greek: (Zeus) Sky Father and (Hera) Sky Mother who started as an “Earth Goddess” *Indo-European*

Nordic: (Dagr) Sky Father and (Nótt) Sky Mother *Indo-European*

Slavic: (Perun) Sky Father and (Mokosh) Earth Mother *Indo-European*

Illyrian: (Deipaturos) Sky Father and (Messapic Damatura’s “earth-mother” maybe) Earth Mother *Indo-European*

Albanian: (Zojz) Sky Father and (?) *Indo-European*

Baltic: (Perkūnas) Sky Father and (Saulė) Sky Mother *Indo-European*

Germanic: (Týr) Sky Father and (?) *Indo-European*

Colombian-Muisca: (Bochica) Sky Father and (Huythaca) Sky Mother *Chibchan*

Aztec: (Quetzalcoatl) Sky Father and (Xochiquetzal) Sky Mother *Uto-Aztecan*

Incan: (Viracocha) Sky Father and (Mama Runtucaya) Sky Mother *Quechuan*

China: (Tian/Shangdi) Sky Father and (Dì) Earth Mother *Sino-Tibetan*

Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian: (An/Anu) Sky Father and (Ki) Earth Mother

Finnish: (Ukko) Sky Father and (Akka) Earth Mother *Finno-Ugric*

Sami: (Horagalles) Sky Father and (Ravdna) Earth Mother *Finno-Ugric*

Puebloan-Zuni: (Ápoyan Ta’chu) Sky Father and (Áwitelin Tsíta) Earth Mother

Puebloan-Hopi: (Tawa) Sky Father and (Kokyangwuti/Spider Woman/Grandmother) Earth Mother *Uto-Aztecan*

Puebloan-Navajo: (Tsohanoai) Sky Father and (Estsanatlehi) Earth Mother *Na-Dene*


Sky Father/Sky Mother “High Gods” or similar gods/goddesses of the sky more loosely connected, seeming arcane mythology across the earth seen in Siberia, China, Europe, Native Americans/First Nations People and Mesopotamia, etc.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

ref, ref

Hinduism around 3,700 to 3,500 years old. ref

 Judaism around 3,450 or 3,250 years old. (The first writing in the bible was “Paleo-Hebrew” dated to around 3,000 years ago Khirbet Qeiyafa is the site of an ancient fortress city overlooking the Elah Valley. And many believe the religious Jewish texts were completed around 2,500) ref, ref

Judaism is around 3,450 or 3,250 years old. (“Paleo-Hebrew” 3,000 years ago and Torah 2,500 years ago)

“Judaism is an Abrahamic, its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Some scholars argue that modern Judaism evolved from Yahwism, the religion of ancient Israel and Judah, by the late 6th century BCE, and is thus considered to be one of the oldest monotheistic religions.” ref

“Yahwism is the name given by modern scholars to the religion of ancient Israel, essentially polytheistic, with a plethora of gods and goddesses. Heading the pantheon was Yahweh, the national god of the Israelite kingdoms of Israel and Judah, with his consort, the goddess Asherah; below them were second-tier gods and goddesses such as Baal, Shamash, Yarikh, Mot, and Astarte, all of whom had their own priests and prophets and numbered royalty among their devotees, and a third and fourth tier of minor divine beings, including the mal’ak, the messengers of the higher gods, who in later times became the angels of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Yahweh, however, was not the ‘original’ god of Israel “Isra-El”; it is El, the head of the Canaanite pantheon, whose name forms the basis of the name “Israel”, and none of the Old Testament patriarchs, the tribes of Israel, the Judges, or the earliest monarchs, have a Yahwistic theophoric name (i.e., one incorporating the name of Yahweh).” ref

“El is a Northwest Semitic word meaning “god” or “deity“, or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major ancient Near Eastern deities. A rarer form, ‘ila, represents the predicate form in Old Akkadian and in Amorite. The word is derived from the Proto-Semitic *ʔil-, meaning “god”. Specific deities known as ‘El or ‘Il include the supreme god of the ancient Canaanite religion and the supreme god of East Semitic speakers in Mesopotamia’s Early Dynastic Period. ʼĒl is listed at the head of many pantheons. In some Canaanite and Ugaritic sources, ʼĒl played a role as father of the gods, of creation, or both. For example, in the Ugaritic texts, ʾil mlk is understood to mean “ʼĒl the King” but ʾil hd as “the god Hadad“. The Semitic root ʾlh (Arabic ʾilāh, Aramaic ʾAlāh, ʾElāh, Hebrew ʾelōah) may be ʾl with a parasitic h, and ʾl may be an abbreviated form of ʾlh. In Ugaritic the plural form meaning “gods” is ʾilhm, equivalent to Hebrew ʾelōhîm “powers”. In the Hebrew texts this word is interpreted as being semantically singular for “god” by biblical commentators. However the documentary hypothesis for the Old Testament (corresponds to the Jewish Torah) developed originally in the 1870s, identifies these that different authors – the Jahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomist, and the Priestly source – were responsible for editing stories from a polytheistic religion into those of a monotheistic religion. Inconsistencies that arise between monotheism and polytheism in the texts are reflective of this hypothesis.” ref


Jainism around 2,599 – 2,527 years old. ref

Confucianism around 2,600 – 2,551 years old. ref

Buddhism around 2,563/2,480 – 2,483/2,400 years old. ref

Christianity around 2,o00 years old. ref

Shinto around 1,305 years old. ref

Islam around 1407–1385 years old. ref

Sikhism around 548–478 years old. ref

Bahá’í around 200–125 years old. ref

Knowledge to Ponder: 


  • Possibly, around 30,000 years ago (in simpler form) to 6,000 years ago, Stars/Astrology are connected to Ancestors, Spirit Animals, and Deities.
  • The star also seems to be a possible proto-star for Star of Ishtar, Star of Inanna, or Star of Venus.
  • Around 7,000 to 6,000 years ago, Star Constellations/Astrology have connections to the “Kurgan phenomenon” of below-ground “mound” stone/wood burial structures and “Dolmen phenomenon” of above-ground stone burial structures.
  • Around 6,500–5,800 years ago, The Northern Levant migrations into Jordon and Israel in the Southern Levant brought new cultural and religious transfer from Turkey and Iran.
  • “The Ghassulian Star,” a mysterious 6,000-year-old mural from Jordan may have connections to the European paganstic kurgan/dolmens phenomenon.

“Astrology is a range of divinatory practices, recognized as pseudoscientific since the 18th century, that claim to discern information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the apparent positions of celestial objects. Different cultures have employed forms of astrology since at least the 2nd millennium BCE, these practices having originated in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. Most, if not all, cultures have attached importance to what they observed in the sky, and some—such as the HindusChinese, and the Maya—developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Western astrology, one of the oldest astrological systems still in use, can trace its roots to 19th–17th century BCE Mesopotamia, from where it spread to Ancient GreeceRome, the Islamicate world and eventually Central and Western Europe. Contemporary Western astrology is often associated with systems of horoscopes that purport to explain aspects of a person’s personality and predict significant events in their lives based on the positions of celestial objects; the majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems.” ref 

Around 5,500 years ago, Science evolves, The first evidence of science was 5,500 years ago and was demonstrated by a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world. ref

Around 5,000 years ago, Origin of Logics is a Naturalistic Observation (principles of valid reasoning, inference, & demonstration) ref

Around 4,150 to 4,000 years ago: The earliest surviving versions of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, which was originally titled “He who Saw the Deep” (Sha naqba īmuru) or “Surpassing All Other Kings” (Shūtur eli sharrī) were written. ref


  • 3,700 years ago or so, the oldest of the Hindu Vedas (scriptures), the Rig Veda was composed.
  • 3,500 years ago or so, the Vedic Age began in India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization.


  • around 3,000 years ago, the first writing in the bible was “Paleo-Hebrew”
  • around 2,500 years ago, many believe the religious Jewish texts were completed

Myths: The bible inspired religion is not just one religion or one myth but a grouping of several religions and myths

  • Around 3,450 or 3,250 years ago, according to legend, is the traditionally accepted period in which the Israelite lawgiver, Moses, provided the Ten Commandments.
  • Around 2,500 to 2,400 years ago, a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh, or Old Testament is the first part of Christianity’s bible.
  • Around 2,400 years ago, the most accepted hypothesis is that the canon was formed in stages, first the Pentateuch (Torah).
  • Around 2,140 to 2,116 years ago, the Prophets was written during the Hasmonean dynasty, and finally the remaining books.
  • Christians traditionally divide the Old Testament into four sections:
  • The first five books or Pentateuch (Torah).
  • The proposed history books telling the history of the Israelites from their conquest of Canaan to their defeat and exile in Babylon.
  • The poetic and proposed “Wisdom books” dealing, in various forms, with questions of good and evil in the world.
  • The books of the biblical prophets, warning of the consequences of turning away from God:
  • Henotheism:
  • Exodus 20:23 “You shall not make other gods besides Me (not saying there are no other gods just not to worship them); gods of silver or gods of gold, you shall not make for yourselves.”
  • Polytheism:
  • Judges 10:6 “Then the sons of Israel again did evil in the sight of the LORD, served the Baals and the Ashtaroth, the gods of Aram, the gods of Sidon, the gods of Moab, the gods of the sons of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines; thus they forsook the LORD and did not serve Him.”
  • 1 Corinthians 8:5 “For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords.”
  • Monotheism:
  • Isaiah 43:10 “You are my witnesses,” declares the LORD, “and my servant whom I have chosen, so that you may know and believe me and understand that I am he. Before me no god was formed, nor will there be one after me.

Around 2,570 to 2,270 Years Ago, there is a confirmation of atheistic doubting as well as atheistic thinking, mainly by Greek philosophers. However, doubting gods is likely as old as the invention of gods and should destroy the thinking that belief in god(s) is the “default belief”. The Greek word is apistos (a “not” and pistos “faithful,”), thus not faithful or faithless because one is unpersuaded and unconvinced by a god(s) claim. Short Definition: unbelieving, unbeliever, or unbelief.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

Expressions of Atheistic Thinking:

  • Around 2,600 years ago, Ajita Kesakambali, ancient Indian philosopher, who is the first known proponent of Indian materialism. ref
  • Around 2,535 to 2,475 years ago, Heraclitus, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Ionia, on the coast of Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor or modern Turkey. ref
  • Around 2,500 to 2,400 years ago, according to The Story of Civilization book series certain African pygmy tribes have no identifiable gods, spirits, or religious beliefs or rituals, and even what burials accrue are without ceremony. ref
  • Around 2,490 to 2,430 years ago, Empedocles, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily. ref
  • Around 2,460 to 2,370 years ago, Democritus, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher considered to be the “father of modern science” possibly had some disbelief amounting to atheism. ref
  • Around 2,399 years ago or so, Socrates, a famous Greek philosopher was tried for sinfulness by teaching doubt of state gods. ref
  • Around 2,341 to 2,270 years ago, Epicurus, a Greek philosopher known for composing atheistic critics and famously stated, “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him god?” ref

This last expression by Epicurus, seems to be an expression of Axiological Atheism. To understand and utilize value or actually possess “Value Conscious/Consciousness” to both give a strong moral “axiological” argument (the problem of evil) as well as use it to fortify humanism and positive ethical persuasion of human helping and care responsibilities. Because value-blindness gives rise to sociopathic/psychopathic evil.

“Theists, there has to be a god, as something can not come from nothing.”

Well, thus something (unknown) happened and then there was something. This does not tell us what the something that may have been involved with something coming from nothing. A supposed first cause, thus something (unknown) happened and then there was something is not an open invitation to claim it as known, neither is it justified to call or label such an unknown as anything, especially an unsubstantiated magical thinking belief born of mythology and religious storytelling.

How do they even know if there was nothing as a start outside our universe, could there not be other universes outside our own?
For all, we know there may have always been something past the supposed Big Bang we can’t see beyond, like our universe as one part of a mega system.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

While hallucinogens are associated with shamanism, it is alcohol that is associated with paganism.

The Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries Shows in the prehistory series:

Show one: Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses.

Show two: Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show tree: Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show four: Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show five: Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show six: Emergence of hierarchy, sexism, slavery, and the new male god dominance: Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves!

Show seven: Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State)

Show eight: Paganism 4,000 years old: Moralistic gods after the rise of Statism and often support Statism/Kings: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism)

Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses: VIDEO

Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Pre-Capitalism): VIDEO

Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves: VIEDO

Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State): VIEDO

Paganism 4,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism): VIEDO

I do not hate simply because I challenge and expose myths or lies any more than others being thought of as loving simply because of the protection and hiding from challenge their favored myths or lies.

The truth is best championed in the sunlight of challenge.

An archaeologist once said to me “Damien religion and culture are very different”

My response, So are you saying that was always that way, such as would you say Native Americans’ cultures are separate from their religions? And do you think it always was the way you believe?

I had said that religion was a cultural product. That is still how I see it and there are other archaeologists that think close to me as well. Gods too are the myths of cultures that did not understand science or the world around them, seeing magic/supernatural everywhere.

I personally think there is a goddess and not enough evidence to support a male god at Çatalhöyük but if there was both a male and female god and goddess then I know the kind of gods they were like Proto-Indo-European mythology.

This series idea was addressed in, Anarchist Teaching as Free Public Education or Free Education in the Public: VIDEO

Our 12 video series: Organized Oppression: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of power (9,000-4,000 years ago), is adapted from: The Complete and Concise History of the Sumerians and Early Bronze Age Mesopotamia (7000-2000 BC): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szFjxmY7jQA by “History with Cy

Show #1: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Samarra, Halaf, Ubaid)

Show #2: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Eridu: First City of Power)

Show #3: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Uruk and the First Cities)

Show #4: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (First Kings)

Show #5: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Early Dynastic Period)

Show #6: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (King Lugalzagesi and the First Empire)

Show #7: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Sargon and Akkadian Rule)

Show #8: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Naram-Sin, Post-Akkadian Rule, and the Gutians)

Show #9: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Gudea of Lagash and Utu-hegal)

Show #10: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Third Dynasty of Ur / Neo-Sumerian Empire)

Show #11: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Amorites, Elamites, and the End of an Era)

Show #12: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Aftermath and Legacy of Sumer)

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

The “Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries”

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ Atheist Leftist @Skepticallefty & I (Damien Marie AtHope) @AthopeMarie (my YouTube & related blog) are working jointly in atheist, antitheist, antireligionist, antifascist, anarchist, socialist, and humanist endeavors in our videos together, generally, every other Saturday.

Why Does Power Bring Responsibility?

Think, how often is it the powerless that start wars, oppress others, or commit genocide? So, I guess the question is to us all, to ask, how can power not carry responsibility in a humanity concept? I know I see the deep ethical responsibility that if there is power their must be a humanistic responsibility of ethical and empathic stewardship of that power. Will I be brave enough to be kind? Will I possess enough courage to be compassionate? Will my valor reach its height of empathy? I as everyone, earns our justified respect by our actions, that are good, ethical, just, protecting, and kind. Do I have enough self-respect to put my love for humanity’s flushing, over being brought down by some of its bad actors? May we all be the ones doing good actions in the world, to help human flourishing.

I create the world I want to live in, striving for flourishing. Which is not a place but a positive potential involvement and promotion; a life of humanist goal precision. To master oneself, also means mastering positive prosocial behaviors needed for human flourishing. I may have lost a god myth as an atheist, but I am happy to tell you, my friend, it is exactly because of that, leaving the mental terrorizer, god belief, that I truly regained my connected ethical as well as kind humanity.

Cory and I will talk about prehistory and theism, addressing the relevance to atheism, anarchism, and socialism.

At the same time as the rise of the male god, 7,000 years ago, there was also the very time there was the rise of violence, war, and clans to kingdoms, then empires, then states. It is all connected back to 7,000 years ago, and it moved across the world.

Cory Johnston: https://damienmarieathope.com/2021/04/cory-johnston-mind-of-a-skeptical-leftist/?v=32aec8db952d  

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist (YouTube)

Cory Johnston: Mind of a Skeptical Leftist @Skepticallefty

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist By Cory Johnston: “Promoting critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics by covering current events and talking to a variety of people. Cory Johnston has been thoughtfully talking to people and attempting to promote critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics.” http://anchor.fm/skepticalleft

Cory needs our support. We rise by helping each other.

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ @Skepticallefty Evidence-based atheist leftist (he/him) Producer, host, and co-host of 4 podcasts @skeptarchy @skpoliticspod and @AthopeMarie

Damien Marie AtHope (“At Hope”) Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist. Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Poet, Philosopher, Advocate, Activist, Psychology, and Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Historian.

Damien is interested in: Freedom, Liberty, Justice, Equality, Ethics, Humanism, Science, Atheism, Antiteism, Antireligionism, Ignosticism, Left-Libertarianism, Anarchism, Socialism, Mutualism, Axiology, Metaphysics, LGBTQI, Philosophy, Advocacy, Activism, Mental Health, Psychology, Archaeology, Social Work, Sexual Rights, Marriage Rights, Woman’s Rights, Gender Rights, Child Rights, Secular Rights, Race Equality, Ageism/Disability Equality, Etc. And a far-leftist, “Anarcho-Humanist.”

I am not a good fit in the atheist movement that is mostly pro-capitalist, I am anti-capitalist. Mostly pro-skeptic, I am a rationalist not valuing skepticism. Mostly pro-agnostic, I am anti-agnostic. Mostly limited to anti-Abrahamic religions, I am an anti-religionist.

To me, the “male god” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 7,000 years ago, whereas the now favored monotheism “male god” is more like 4,000 years ago or so. To me, the “female goddess” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 11,000-10,000 years ago or so, losing the majority of its once prominence around 2,000 years ago due largely to the now favored monotheism “male god” that grow in prominence after 4,000 years ago or so.

My Thought on the Evolution of Gods?

Animal protector deities from old totems/spirit animal beliefs come first to me, 13,000/12,000 years ago, then women as deities 11,000/10,000 years ago, then male gods around 7,000/8,000 years ago. Moralistic gods around 5,000/4,000 years ago, and monotheistic gods around 4,000/3,000 years ago. 

To me, animal gods were likely first related to totemism animals around 13,000 to 12,000 years ago or older. Female as goddesses was next to me, 11,000 to 10,000 years ago or so with the emergence of agriculture. Then male gods come about 8,000 to 7,000 years ago with clan wars. Many monotheism-themed religions started in henotheism, emerging out of polytheism/paganism.

“Animism” is needed to begin supernatural thinking.
“Totemism” is needed for supernatural thinking connecting human actions & related to clan/tribe.
“Shamanism” is needed for supernatural thinking to be controllable/changeable by special persons.
Together = Gods/paganism

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

Damien Marie AtHope (Said as “At” “Hope”)/(Autodidact Polymath but not good at math):

Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist, Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Jeweler, Poet, “autodidact” Philosopher, schooled in Psychology, and “autodidact” Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Pre-Historian (Knowledgeable in the range of: 1 million to 5,000/4,000 years ago). I am an anarchist socialist politically. Reasons for or Types of Atheism

My Website, My Blog, & Short-writing or QuotesMy YouTube, Twitter: @AthopeMarie, and My Email: damien.marie.athope@gmail.com

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