Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

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“The ANE lineage is defined by association with the MA-1, or “Mal’ta boy”, remains of 24,000 years ago in central Siberia Mal’ta-Buret’ culture 24,000-15,000 years ago. The Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) samples (Afontova Gora 3, Mal’ta 1, and Yana-RHS) show evidence for minor gene flow from an East Asian-related group (simplified by the Amis, Han, or Tianyuan) but no evidence for ANE-related geneflow into East Asians (Amis, Han, Tianyuan), except the Ainu, of North Japan.” ref 

“The ANE lineage is defined by association with the MA-1, or “Mal’ta boy”, remains of 24,000 years ago in central Siberia Mal’ta-Buret’ culture 24,000-15,000 years ago “basal to modern-day Europeans”. Some Ancient North Eurasians also carried East Asian populations, such as Tianyuan Man.” ref

“Bronze-age-steppe Yamnaya and Afanasevo cultures were ANE at around 50% and Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) at around 75% ANE. Karelia culture: Y-DNA R1a-M417 8,400 years ago, Y-DNA J, 7,200 years ago, and Samara, of Y-haplogroup R1b-P297 7,600 years ago is closely related to ANE from Afontova Gora, 18,000 years ago around the time of blond hair first seen there.” ref 

Ancient North Eurasian

“In archaeogenetics, the term Ancient North Eurasian (often abbreviated as ANE) is the name given to an ancestral West Eurasian component that represents descent from the people similar to the Mal’ta–Buret’ culture and populations closely related to them, such as from Afontova Gora and the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site. Significant ANE ancestry are found in some modern populations, including Europeans and Native Americans.” ref 

“The ANE lineage is defined by association with the MA-1, or “Mal’ta boy“, the remains of an individual who lived during the Last Glacial Maximum, 24,000 years ago in central Siberia, Ancient North Eurasians are described as a lineage “which is deeply related to Paleolithic/Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe,” meaning that they diverged from Paleolithic Europeans a long time ago.” ref

“The ANE population has also been described as having been “basal to modern-day Europeans” but not especially related to East Asians, and is suggested to have perhaps originated in Europe or Western Asia or the Eurasian Steppe of Central Asia. However, some samples associated with Ancient North Eurasians also carried ancestry from an ancient East Asian population, such as Tianyuan Man. Sikora et al. (2019) found that the Yana RHS sample (31,600 BP) in Northern Siberia “can be modeled as early West Eurasian with an approximately 22% contribution from early East Asians.” ref

“Populations genetically similar to MA-1 were an important genetic contributor to Native Americans, Europeans, Central Asians, South Asians, and some East Asian groups, in order of significance. Lazaridis et al. (2016:10) note “a cline of ANE ancestry across the east-west extent of Eurasia.” The ancient Bronze-age-steppe Yamnaya and Afanasevo cultures were found to have a noteworthy ANE component at ~50%.” ref

“According to Moreno-Mayar et al. 2018 between 14% and 38% of Native American ancestry may originate from gene flow from the Mal’ta–Buret’ people (ANE). This difference is caused by the penetration of posterior Siberian migrations into the Americas, with the lowest percentages of ANE ancestry found in Eskimos and Alaskan Natives, as these groups are the result of migrations into the Americas roughly 5,000 years ago.” ref 

“Estimates for ANE ancestry among first wave Native Americans show higher percentages, such as 42% for those belonging to the Andean region in South America. The other gene flow in Native Americans (the remainder of their ancestry) was of East Asian origin. Gene sequencing of another south-central Siberian people (Afontova Gora-2) dating to approximately 17,000 years ago, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures to that of Mal’ta boy-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum.” ref

“The earliest known individual with a genetic mutation associated with blonde hair in modern Europeans is an Ancient North Eurasian female dating to around 16000 BCE from the Afontova Gora 3 site in Siberia. It has been suggested that their mythology may have included a narrative, found in both Indo-European and some Native American fables, in which a dog guards the path to the afterlife.” ref

“Genomic studies also indicate that the ANE component was introduced to Western Europe by people related to the Yamnaya culture, long after the Paleolithic. It is reported in modern-day Europeans (7%–25%), but not of Europeans before the Bronze Age. Additional ANE ancestry is found in European populations through paleolithic interactions with Eastern Hunter-Gatherers, which resulted in populations such as Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers.” ref

“The Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) split from the ancestors of European peoples somewhere in the Middle East or South-central Asia, and used a northern dispersal route through Central Asia into Northern Asia and Siberia. Genetic analyses show that all ANE samples (Afontova Gora 3, Mal’ta 1, and Yana-RHS) show evidence for minor gene flow from an East Asian-related group (simplified by the Amis, Han, or Tianyuan). In contrast, no evidence for ANE-related geneflow into East Asians (Amis, Han, Tianyuan), except the Ainu, was found.” ref

“Genetic data suggests that the ANE formed during the Terminal Upper-Paleolithic (36+-1,5ka) period from a deeply European-related population, which was once widespread in Northern Eurasia, and from an early East Asian-related group, which migrated northwards into Central Asia and Siberia, merging with this deeply European-related population. These population dynamics and constant northwards geneflow of East Asian-related ancestry would later gave rise to the “Ancestral Native Americans” and Paleosiberians, which replaced the ANE as dominant population of Siberia.” ref

Groups partially derived from the Ancient North Eurasians

Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) is a lineage derived predominantly (75%) from ANE. It is represented by two individuals from Karelia, one of Y-haplogroup R1a-M417, dated c. 8.4 kya, the other of Y-haplogroup J, dated c. 7.2 kya; and one individual from Samara, of Y-haplogroup R1b-P297, dated c. 7.6 kya. This lineage is closely related to the ANE sample from Afontova Gora, dated c. 18 kya. After the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, the Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHG) and EHG lineages merged in Eastern Europe, accounting for early presence of ANE-derived ancestry in Mesolithic Europe. Evidence suggests that as Ancient North Eurasians migrated West from Eastern Siberia, they absorbed Western Hunter-Gatherers and other West Eurasian populations as well.” ref

Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer (CHG) is represented by the Satsurblia individual dated ~13 kya (from the Satsurblia cave in Georgia), and carried 36% ANE-derived admixture. While the rest of their ancestry is derived from the Dzudzuana cave individual dated ~26 kya, which lacked ANE-admixture, Dzudzuana affinity in the Caucasus decreased with the arrival of ANE at ~13 kya Satsurblia.” ref

Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherer (SHG) is represented by several individuals buried at Motala, Sweden ca. 6000 BC. They were descended from Western Hunter-Gatherers who initially settled Scandinavia from the south, and later populations of EHG who entered Scandinavia from the north through the coast of Norway.” ref

“Iran Neolithic (Iran_N) individuals dated ~8.5 kya carried 50% ANE-derived admixture and 50% Dzudzuana-related admixture, marking them as different from other Near-Eastern and Anatolian Neolithics who didn’t have ANE admixture. Iran Neolithics were later replaced by Iran Chalcolithics, who were a mixture of Iran Neolithic and Near Eastern Levant Neolithic.” ref

Ancient Beringian/Ancestral Native American are specific archaeogenetic lineages, based on the genome of an infant found at the Upward Sun River site (dubbed USR1), dated to 11,500 years ago. The AB lineage diverged from the Ancestral Native American (ANA) lineage about 20,000 years ago.” ref

“West Siberian Hunter-Gatherer (WSHG) are a specific archaeogenetic lineage, first reported in a genetic study published in Science in September 2019. WSGs were found to be of about 30% EHG ancestry, 50% ANE ancestry, and 20% to 38% East Asian ancestry.” ref

Western Steppe Herders (WSH) is the name given to a distinct ancestral component that represents descent closely related to the Yamnaya culture of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. This ancestry is often referred to as Yamnaya ancestry or Steppe ancestry.” ref

“Late Upper Paeolithic Lake Baikal – Ust’Kyakhta-3 (UKY) 14,050-13,770 BP were mixture of 30% ANE ancestry and 70% East Asian ancestry.” ref

“Lake Baikal Holocene – Baikal Eneolithic (Baikal_EN) and Baikal Early Bronze Age (Baikal_EBA) derived 6.4% to 20.1% ancestry from ANE, while rest of their ancestry was derived from East Asians. Fofonovo_EN near by Lake Baikal were mixture of 12-17% ANE ancestry and 83-87% East Asian ancestry.” ref

Hokkaido Jōmon people specifically refers to the Jōmon period population of Hokkaido in northernmost Japan. Though the Jōmon people themselves descended mainly from East Asian lineages, one study found an affinity between Hokkaido Jōmon with the Northern Eurasian Yana sample (an ANE-related group, related to Mal’ta), and suggest as an explanation the possibility of minor Yana gene flow into the Hokkaido Jōmon population (as well as other possibilities). A more recent study by Cooke et al. 2021, confirmed ANE-related geneflow among the Jōmon people, partially ancestral to the Ainu people. ANE ancestry among Jōmon people is estimated at 21%, however, there is a North to South cline within the Japanese archipelago, with the highest amount of ANE ancestry in Hokkaido and Tohoku.” ref

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art


Damien Marie AtHope’s Art


Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

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The Peopling of the Americas Pre-Paleoindians/Paleoamericans around 30,000 to 12,000 years ago

Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans’ Arrival in the Americas

Paleontologists in Uruguay published findings in November suggesting that humans hunted giant sloths there about 30,000 years ago. All the way in southern Chile, Tom D. Dillehay, an anthropologist at Vanderbilt University, has shown that humans lived at a coastal site called Monte Verde as early as 14,800 years ago. Stone tools in northeast Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago, proves that humans reached what is now northeast Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago. Their discovery adds to the growing body of research upending a prevailing belief of 20th-century archaeology in the United States known as the Clovis model, which holds that people first arrived in the Americas from Asia about 13,000 years ago.

“If they’re right, and there’s a great possibility that they are, that will change everything we know about the settlement of the Americas,” said Walter Neves, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of São Paulo whose own analysis of an 11,000-year-old skull in Brazil implies that some ancient Americans resembled aboriginal Australians more than they did Asians. ref

The earliest radiocarbon dates from the site support the theory that humans first reached the New World by at least 17,000 to 15,000 years ago or more. To read more in-depth about these early people, go to “America, in the Beginning.” ref

New projectile point style could suggest two separate migrations into North America

“Texas A&M University researchers about 40 miles northwest of Austin in Central Texas have discovered what are believed to be the oldest and pre-date Clovis weapons ever found in North America: ancient spear points that are 15,500 years old. The findings raise new questions about the settlement of early peoples on the continent.” ref

The first Americans ‘island hopped’ down the west coast past the glaciers

First Humans Entered the Americas Along the Coast, Not Through the Ice

Most archaeologists think the first Americans arrived by boat

Oldest stone tools in Chile 17,000 to 19,000 years ago, in Deep South America 

14,000-Year-Old Hunting Camp Unearthed in Argentina

North America’s first dogs were domesticated in Siberia

The remains of one of the earliest known dogs in America, which lived about 10,000 years ago. The remains were found at the Koster site in Illinois. The North American dogs and the Zhokhov Island dogs shared a common ancestor that lived 14,600 years ago, the ancient dogs of North America are most closely related to a population of dogs from Zhokhov Island in Eastern Siberia, where the earliest known evidence of dog domestication was found. They probably came alongside humans who crossed a land bridge between Alaska and Siberia. ref

Dog Domestication and Emerging Sacred Mortuary Rituals around 16,500 to 12,000 years ago

“Give My Body to the Birds: The Practice of Sky Burial” (which comes from Siberian Shamanism)

“Sky burial is still currently the preferred practice in Tibet when a loved one dies.” 

“It was actually only around 40 years ago that a similar death ritual was performed by the Zoroastrians in parts of Iran and India. It differed in that the corpse was not prepared — it was left intact on a short tower with a low parapet around the perimeter (a dakhma, or “tower of silence”).

On the top of the tower were concentric rings: the outer one for the bodies of men, the middle for women, and the innermost for children. When the sun had bleached the bones, which could take up to a year, they were collected and dissolved in lime in an ossuary pit at the center of the tower, then filtered by charcoal and flushed away by rainwater. 

The Zoroastrians’ reasons for sky burial differed greatly from the Vajrāyana Buddhists. Zoroastrianism considers a dead body as unclean and impure, as well as liable to be rife with demons. To bury a body is to risk defiling the water supply via putrefaction, and cremating one could contaminate the air. The use of dakhmas was outlawed in Iran in the 1970s, as the country’s urban limits spread out and threatened to swallow the rural areas where the towers are built. Many of these towers remain throughout Iran and India, along with the ossuaries where the bones finally rest. Today, in order to keep impurities and demons contained, some Zoroastrians have taken to encasing corpses in cement before they’re buried. 

The Sioux and Lakota tribes of North America historically buried their dead, but practices varied among tribes and situations and sometimes included air burial, which utilized wooden scaffolds, or even the limbs of trees, in order to offer a corpse to the sky. The scaffolds were approximately eight feet tall and were traditionally constructed by women. This air burial was typically used for the bodies of warriors who fell in battle, and the favorite horse of the dead would often be killed and tied to the scaffold or tree by its tail. Bodies were wrapped tightly in blankets and with weapons and other valuables, and they could be left aloft for up to two years before being retrieved and buried, although this didn’t happen universally. The motive was not solely to encourage the dead person’s spirit to depart into the sky: Sioux and Lakota people feared the dead as well as the diseases they can spread, so it was also an attempt to minimize contact with the body. 

Some tribes within Sac and Fox Nation of the midwestern United States would also place bodies in trees, and not necessarily the bodies of warriors, and sometimes there would be several “burials” per tree. Some tribes would often leave a slain warrior at the site of the battle that killed him, to decompose naturally, believing he would rise into the sky on his own (a different kind of sky burial, perhaps).” – Atlas Obscura

Sky Burials: Animism, Totemism, Shamanism, and Paganism

Paleo-Indian culture | ancient American Indian culture | Britannica.com

12,000 – 7,000 Years Ago – Paleo-Indian Culture (The Americas)

Paganism: an approximately 12,000-year-old belief system

Paleoamerican remains found in the Yucatan 12,000 years ago: In pre-Mayan Mexico, a slender, bucktoothed 15- or 16-year-old girl fell into a flooded, underground cavern about 12,000 years ago. She was a Paleoamerican, with features more akin to Africans and Southeast Asians than modern Native Americans. DNA collected from one of her molars reveals a direct connection to the people who crossed the Bering land bridge from Siberia more than 18,000 years ago. The discovery greatly extends the range of DNA information about Paleoamericans. Read related article.

“36cu0190” a Historic and Prehistoric site in Pennsylvania

Okay, now let me explain the classification of Pre-Paleoindians/Paleoamericans, which loosely refers to the first peoples who started to inhabit the Americas. To me, it seems Siberian is the general origin of native Americans and by around 11,000 years ago, the land bridge “Beringia” from Asia by way of Siberia in Russia over to Alaska in the Americas, which the Paleoindians had crossed over on, finally flooded over by rising sea levels and was submerged. Beringia is a land bridge encompassing the area of what is now the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi and Kamchatka Peninsulas in Russia as well as Alaska in the United States. These early Siberian Paleoindians seemingly first settled in Siberia especially in southern areas around 12,000 years ago.

However, these early Siberian Pre-Paleoindians maybe a part of the first nomadic peoples who entered Siberia about 50,000 years ago. Of note, the ability for human and animal population movements in such northern regions was assisted by the fact that neither Wrangel Island which separated from Russian about 12,000 years ago due to sea level rise, nor the East Siberian, as well as the Chukchi Seas, stopped having extreme glaciation after 64,000 years ago. The Bering Strait area “Beringia” from around 60,000 to 30,000 had an intermittent land bridge and sometime roughly around 30,000 to 11,000 there is a land bridge that could have allowed crossing into the Americas.

Some have theorized that roaming nomadic peoples who entered Siberia about 50,000 years ago and there is evidence of humans in the Yana River region in the Arctic far northern Siberian with evidence of habitation possibly as early as 30,000 years ago, though it was about 1,200 miles from the Bering Strait. This northern Siberian culture found at the Yana settlement has been thought to possibly share some stylistic similarities with Clovis culture found earliest in America. These roaming nomadic peoples who entered Siberia could have started venturing into the Americas as far back as possibly sometime as far back as 40,000 to 11,000 years ago coinciding with a claimant as the last glacial period ended about 11,700 years ago with warming in parts of Beringia from 15,000 years ago. Furthermore, the scientific evidence also demonstrates strong links from indigenous peoples of Americans to the peoples of eastern Siberia.

However, there is one interesting to note is how it seems the common Clovis stone tools where very different from Siberian ones around the same time. Siberian style generally involved ivory points with a blade whereas Clovis style roughly around 13,500 to 12,800 years ago, generally involved highly refined thin points. While the sites in North America are surprising an amazing set of sites are in South America that are older than one would think, such as Monte Verde in southern Chile, which was about 8,000 miles south of the Bering Strait Land Bridge access.

Moreover, this southern Chile set of Paleoamericans which obviously pre-dates the Clovis culture has been dated to as early as 18,500 and possibly as much as 33,000 years old, though the average age is 14,800 years ago. These Chilean Pre-Paleoamericans did utilize mastodons though these people were marine resources adapted hunter-gatherer-fishermen, and not really big hunters as much as was common with the Clovis Paleoamericans, who are generally considered to be the ancestors of most of the indigenous cultures of the Americas.

To me, this demonstrates the signs of sedatism adaption to one’s local resources availability. Thus, this means heightened changes in food attainment practices, which often alters superstition patterns, do to resources or conditional environment patterns, factors, places or things. Another amazing South America site is the site of Pedra Furada in Brazil with early dates that seem to be at least 29,000 years old.

However, Pedra Furada’s rock art dates to around 12,000 years ago which may be a sign of some new wave of peoples and its art depictions seem to demonstrate spearthrowers and traps as the utilized hunting medium, though the stone tools found generally lacked elaborate design such as was common with the Clovis Paleoamericans. Toca da Tira Peia also in Brazil dates to around 22,000 years ago. Although, North America also has a site at Topper in South Carolina dated to around 16,000 to 20,000 years. 150,000 artifacts near at the Gault Archaeological Site near Killeen, Texas.  estimates that these artifacts could be 16,000-20,000 years old, which would put them at about 3,000 years older than any Clovis artifact.

The Central American land bridge a vital band bridge that connects North and South America and has evidence of domesticated crops sometime between 9000 and 7000 years ago. Therefore, we can easily see these early Paleoindians have a widespread in the Americas even by 12,000 years ago. Furthermore, these Paleoamericans became the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Native peoples to the Americas hold the genetics of two very distinctive types. One of these distinctive genetic types expresses connections to the first Asian peoples who started to inhabit the Americas, and the other was relatively connected to distinctive genetic types from when Europeans arrived in the Americas. From Alaska, these Paleoindians spread to North America eventually reaching South America. Possibly, the earliest evidence of these Paleoindians in Alaska is found at the Tanana Valley sites.

Such as, Swan Point which was occupied at least five times and could be as old as 14,000 years ago. At least three distinct stone tool types also have been found in Alaskan starting between 12,060 to 11,660 years ago and may represent separate cultures. Moreover, some of the oldest cultural evidence appear in Alaskan between 11,660 to 10,000 years ago including the use of red ochre, possibly ceremonially. Point in fact, is an 11,500 years old burial of infants, which were found at the Tanana River site containing grave offerings like decorated stone weapons. In all three infants were found, appearing to have died relatively about the same time, one was a partly cremated toddler, as well as a dual burial of a child who may have died soon after birth, and another who was possibly stillborn.

The dual burial children were buried alongside stone spearheads with antler handles with geometric designs for decoration possibly involving Totemism; meaning “brother-sister kin” is frequently associated with shamanistic religions and indigenous tribal populations. Totemism loosely involves mystical thinking/relationship with the spirits of animals, plants, or natural spaces/things/forces through the veneration of sacred objects called totems, which may help explain the mythical origin of the concepts of a clan to the earth and the living things in it and the reasons there are taboo).

This inside of Totemism is important as most of the beliefs seen in the indigenous peoples of Canada and America can be said to involve the religious beliefs of Totemism. And to me there are some similarities between the shamanistic burials at Tanana River site tributary of the Yukon River in Alaska in America with its dual child burial containing spears with geometric designs and red ochre to Sungir western Russia described as “the most spectacular” among European Gravettian culture burials that had elaborate grave goods including ivory-beaded jewelry, Arctic clothing, and spears and red ochre that was a ritual material used in burials at this time.

It has also been noticed that the beads on the man pants from Sungir seems to be reflective if pants worn by Native Peoples of some parts of northwest America. The Gravettian people’s origin seems to appear simultaneously all over Europe including Russia. Like their Aurignacian predecessors, they are well-known for their Venus figurines some of which may connect to a fertility rite.

And the Gravettian peoples of eastern Europe where quite religiously shamanistic which seems expressive with their Venus figures and unique burials. The Kostenkian, Kostenki-Avdeevo, and Kostenki-Streletskaya cultures are the examples of the cultures of the eastern European Gravettian. Not far from Sungir also in Russia, there is another well-known Gravettian site in western Russia at Gagarino seems to further follow this ritualistic/totemism/shamanism of the dual burial’s significance with an interesting dual head to head figurine sculptures found there, which can be interpreted to shows a woman/girl and a man/boy in a way similar to that of Sungir.

The bodies are united by the heads but turned to the opposite directions. The Gravettian of Italy 35,000 – 24,000 years ago is renowned above all for its figurines and burials, one containing an equally ritually connecting two beings through this duel matching involved what seems a possibly pregnant female and a stylized zoomorphic figure that can be interpreted as a shake a possible early representation of the latter goddess and the bull myth thinking. This is not some limited religious behavior as there are various forms of the dual unity of polarity are found in other Gravettian sites of Europe. There is a French Gravettian site Venus figurine with the representation of a woman with a what looks like a bullhorn a possible early representation of the latter goddess and the bull myth thinking. Eastern Siberia cultures seemingly have a lot of things in common with the European Gravettian cultures.

Mal’ta–Buret’ culture around 24,000 to 15,000 years ago west of Lake Baikal north of the Mongolian border in south Eastern Siberia belonged to a now extinct population closely related to the genetic ancestry of Siberians, Native Americans, Kets, Mansi, Nganasans and Yukaghirs and Yamnaya peoples (Yamna culture) of the European steppe lands north of the Black Sea who have been genetically identified as began a mass migration in different directions, including Europe, about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago showing that the spread of farming was not the only large migration into Europe and explains how people from Germany.

For example, are showing small percentages of Native American ancestry as they both have common ancestors from central Asia thousands of years ago. The Yamna culture very significant distributor and to some the originator of the Proto-Indo-European-Language, the now-defunct mother-tongue of European languages was primarily nomadic found in Russia also known as the Pit Grave Culture or the Ochre Grave Culture because bodies buried were covered in ochre. All this together possibly offers support for some shared religious thinking and behaviors are found between these groups. Getting back to Alaska and the Paleoamericans involves an odd fact about the child around 3-years-old was that the toddler who had been somewhat cremated inside a hearth, which was then filled then abandoned.

Similarly, the cultic behavior seems evident in the fact that the two infants are not maternally related and probably female were in a pit grave covered in including all artifact surfaces are coated with red ochre and buried with funerary objects that were likely part of a weapon system.

An obsidian peace that was part of the infant burial’s grave goods that when studied shows it comes from the Hoodoo Mountain site in Yukon, Canada 370 miles away. Broken Mammoth, Alaska with a total of at least three separate occupations times and also held far off obsidian but this time it came from a Wiki Peak source, and dates to as early as 13,400 years ago. Similar such obsidian was also used at the Walker Road, Alaska site, and Moose Creek, Alaska site in the same area—all dating to before 13,000 years ago.

The obsidian that comprised some of the artifacts originated from Batza Tena in northwest Alaska and from the Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve area in east Alaska. All this implies posable trade and outside group interaction. Migration may also be a factor as the two infants’ teeth seem quite similar to those of Native Americans and Northeast Asians. Likewise, there were three of the rods that appear to be similar to the rhinoceros’ horn shaft at Yana Site in northern Siberia. Likewise, the genetic lineages of these two infants are only found in the Americas. The layer with the human burials found on the American side of Beringia in Alaska is similar to those found around 12,600-year-old at level 6 of 7 layers of common cultural artifacts found.

And, among the Beringian sites from the early Ushki culture at Ushki Lake, Kamchatka on the American side of Beringia is had a human burial pit dating to approximately 13,000-years-old human from layer 7. It is theorized that the Beringian populations were involved in some of the early American Paleoindian populations thus adding to the genetics among modern Native Americans. Speaking of genetic there are models predict that Paleoindian populations likely existed in isolation in Beringia several thousand years before their eventual dispersal to the Americas. Moreover, there is genetics that seems to imply a Pacific coastal migration along with ancient DNA studies that show a connection between such populations of the far west of North America, from Alaska south to Oregon.

More evidence is expressed in how stone tool points that are similar to the early Ushki points are on the Channel Islands of California which may date to around 12,000-years-old. While at Buhl, Idaho, tests on human remains associated with a prolonged point dating to around 12,600 years ago indicate a diet largely acquired from marine resources all seeming to express a coastal migration for at least some of the Americas’ founding populations. The Ushki discoveries of human burial pits from cultural layer 6 also held stone beads as well as pendants and red ochre. The Berelekh site at Yakuria, Siberia, is also worth mentioning due to its mammoth bone cemetery atone tools and ivory rod foreshafts in addition to red ocher, which may have been ritualistic in nature.

It is called Ushki in Kamchatka and called Dyuktai in Yakutia and should relatively be considered a stone tool tradition containing several related cultures. In Kolyma and Chukotka, there were stone tool styles that probably developed under the influence of both the Ushki Kamchatka and the Dyuktai cultures. These cultures were also impacted by the Russian Far Eastern Ustinovka culture dating to a time similar to the Kamchatka sites and at Amur with the Selemja culture.

There are also Dyuktai culture sites found on the Aldan, Olenyok, and Indigirka rivers. There seems to be some support that the Dyuktai culture existed in Siberia from 35,000 to 10,500 years ago and could be a precursor to the Clovis culture. It apereas that Modern Humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans all lived in Southern Siberia at the same time around 40,000 years ago. Neanderthal genetics found in both Asia and indigenous America appear to contain more regions of Neanderthal than populations in Europe. Denisovan genetics found in both Asia and indigenous America appears to contain about 25 times less Denisovan contributions then Papua New Guinea and Australia populations. Klyuchevskaya Sopka 60 miles from the Bering Sea is the highest point in Siberia at 15,580 ft and is also Europe’s highest active volcano which is on the Kamchatka Peninsula and vocations have always seemed to inspire myths or superstitions/supernaturalism beliefs.

A point, in fact, some indigenous peoples consider Klyuchevskaya Sopka sacred viewed as where the world was created. Klyuchevskaya Sopka is the most sacred even over other volcanoes in the region, which also hold similar spiritual significance, but Klyuchevskaya Sopka is the most sacred of these. It is said that when the god Volkov created the world, this was the point at which he held it, and so it remains unfinished, unsealed, thus the volcanic activity. Furthermore, there are some traditions that seem to regard Siberia as the possible archetypal home of shamanism, involving sacred practices considered by the tribes to be very ancient. The technological knowledge of the Dyuktai culture is seemingly evident in how it is possible that the Paleoindians inhabitants of the Aldan had knowledge of the bow in the final stage of the Dyuktai culture.

The cultural remains from Layers 5 and 6 of the Ushki site seem to connect to about the time of the final stage of the Dyuktai culture. There seems to be some evidence that roaming nomadic peoples episodically appeared in Dyuktai Cave region located in the Aldan River valley of northeast Siberia at least by 16,000 to 19,000 years ago and some estimates extend it to 35,000 years. The Dyuktai Cave is among the earliest of the Diuktai culture sites with occupations lasting until possibly 12,000 years ago. The human activity in Dyuktai Cave seems to be associated with mammoth hunting with stone spear points similar in some ways to Clovis points. Also in central Alaska, there was a similar abrupt change in stone tool technology with one style overlying another. Moreover, layer 7 may also possibly connect to the Nenana culture due to similar typology and chronology.

Nenana Valley site was first occupied around 11,000 years ago containing points that could suggest the Nenana culture has an ancestral connection to Clovis points found across the United States. There is also thinking that that layer 6 may correlate with part of the Dyuktai culture and could even possibly connect to the Denali culture in Alaska. Moreover, there seems that both Siberia and Alaska experienced an abrupt change from stone tool cultures and could express the second wave of migration rather than an adaptation of technology to new climatic conditions.

The collection of artifacts from Taria Bay on the Kamchatka Peninsula held potential religious significance, such as obsidian human-like/anthropomorphic figures from a pit house that appear to be similar to artifacts from around 9,000 to 7,000 years ago in the USA, England, Switzerland, and France, as well as the Volosovskaia site near Murom in western Russia. The Taria Bay finds are some of the earliest Kamchatka cultures who seem to share a genetic relationship of the Eskimo, Chukchi, Koryak, and Itel’men groups as well as other peoples of Asia and America.

At the lower layers of the first Ushki site (1) held a burial pit with funeral remains in the form of a multitude of stone pendants, beads, and ornaments in two of the earliest Paleolithic settlements in the Northeast Paleoindian at level 7 and Protoeskimo-Aleut in levels 6 and 5. One of the level 6 houses held the burials of a person and a dog along with lots of different stone artifacts Kamchatka animals utilized in that region and time. Kamchatka and it’s the peoples are important in understanding their historical role in the settlement of the Americas, which is why the customs of Kamchatka’s native peoples and tribal structure is seen in the Itel’men, the Koryak, and the Ainuthe, all of which were the primary inhabitants of Kamchatka at that time.

If one does not know anything about those tribes, they may see little difference between them and they do look a lot like each other, similar cultures, languages and religious beliefs. Paleoindians eventually settled in various environments, including coastal regions, forests, mountains, and swamps adapting lifestyles to surroundings. Occupation of the higher elevations of western North America is around 9,700 to 7,500 years ago living in the mountains year-round.

Paleoindians also begin to exploit a higher diversity of resources as their knowledge of the local landscape increases. Possibly the oldest Clovis site in North America is El Fin del Mundo site around 13,390 years ago in northwestern Sonora, Mexico and the Clovis culture decline genetic data shows that the Clovis people are the direct ancestors of roughly 80% of all living Native American populations in North and South America. At the Pedra Furada site in Brazil around 12,000 to10,500 years ago actually involves over 800 sites including hundreds of rock paintings dating to around 11,000 years ago. Around 11,500 years ago Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets retreat enough to allow a corridor through Canada along the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains.

Around 11,000 years ago cultural materials can be found on the Channel Islands of California around 40 miles from Santa Barbara and in coastal Peru. Also, around 10,900 to 12,100 years ago found a number of unusual crescent-shaped tools made of chipped stone, artifacts similar to those found throughout the Great Basin. At least nine of the sites have evidence of Paleoindian occupation around 12,000 to 11,000 years ago some of the earliest on North America’s West Coast. Wizards Beach Man & Spirit Cave mummy from Nevada in America is quite interesting. The Spirit Cave remains involved two people wrapped in tules (3 to 10 ft. giant marsh plants) used as matting. One set of remains, buried deeper than the other, had been partially become mummified. Native American groups possessed tules in many ways, waving them to make baskets, bowls, mats, hats, clothing, duck decoys, canoes and even canoes.

Moreover, about 100 miles northeast from Spirit Cave on Pyramid Lake was found Wizards Beach Man. And, around 7,000 up to 12,000 years ago in southern Nevada have found nearly 20 sites used by ancient hunter-gatherers as much as 12,000 years ago. From around 12,000 to 7,000 years ago in southern Nevada, there were nearly 20 sites used by ancient hunter-gatherers the Great Basin most often found around certain kinds of land formations near water, lakes, and marshlands. Around 11,500 to 9,800 years ago in southern California, 8,830 artifacts are discovered in several layers of human occupation but most of the artifacts date to around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago.

Around 11,800 at Kelly Forks, Idaho with some of the earliest evidence yet of salmon cooking as well as 11,000-year-old points seem to imply freshwater resources were more important for Paleoindian hunter-gatherers than previously thought. Around 12,000 years ago evidence of occupation and bison butchering evidence dates to around 11,500-Year-Old is found at Beaver River complex with prehistoric hunting sites in a floodplain in northwestern Oklahoma along with stone tools and a small, sharp flake or Texas chert. Around 10,500 years ago in the borderlands of northern Mexico is a camp used by Paleoindian hunters revealing insights into some of the earliest human history in the Greater Southwest.

A 10,000 years old Paleoindian site near the Santa Maria River in northern Chihuahua, involves the grave of a 12 to a 15-years-old Paleoindian girl covered by rocks around 3,200 years ago buried in a flexed position, with no grave goods or other offerings. A 10,000-year-old Paleoindian stone tool site was found at Seattle in America.

Another Paleoindian site around 10,000 to 8,500 year ago provides evidence for bison hunting seeming to utilize of a game drive system to kill them, which may have been a new needed adaption. This may have been especially so following the extinction of mammoth, thus Bison would have then become one of the most important game for food, bones, and hides for clothing and shelter. These Paleoindian utilizing a game drive system (sometimes utilizing low rock walls ranging in shape from a U, V and parallel shapes to direct animals) that may have needed up to 25 individuals (a good portion of a clan, thus a rather communal behavior likely adding to group cohesion as well as a likely increase possibility of somewhat equal food sharing and it is not a stretch to think a ceremonial sacred clan bonding feast would soon follow at some point.

Agriculture in the Americas seems to generally involve squash, as early as around 10,000 years ago, corn as early as around 9,500 years ago, and beans by no later than around 6,000 years ago. A clear Paleoindian culture in the Americas Plains existed 9,000 to 7,000 years ago. Some theorize that the rock art in Hata may be as much as up to 7,000 years old involving a giant display of large ochre-colored figures are painted on a remote wall in Utah a dynamic shamanistic seeming rock art technique connected to the Barrier Canyon Style recognized by common limbless anthropomorphic figures found throughout the Colorado Plateau.


Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

While hallucinogens are associated with shamanism, it is alcohol that is associated with paganism.

The Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries Shows in the prehistory series:

Show one: Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses.

Show two: Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show tree: Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show four: Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show five: Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show six: Emergence of hierarchy, sexism, slavery, and the new male god dominance: Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves!

Show seven: Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State)

Show eight: Paganism 4,000 years old: Moralistic gods after the rise of Statism and often support Statism/Kings: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism)

Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses: VIDEO

Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Pre-Capitalism): VIDEO

Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves: VIEDO

Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State): VIEDO

Paganism 4,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism): VIEDO

I do not hate simply because I challenge and expose myths or lies any more than others being thought of as loving simply because of the protection and hiding from challenge their favored myths or lies.

The truth is best championed in the sunlight of challenge.

An archaeologist once said to me “Damien religion and culture are very different”

My response, So are you saying that was always that way, such as would you say Native Americans’ cultures are separate from their religions? And do you think it always was the way you believe?

I had said that religion was a cultural product. That is still how I see it and there are other archaeologists that think close to me as well. Gods too are the myths of cultures that did not understand science or the world around them, seeing magic/supernatural everywhere.

I personally think there is a goddess and not enough evidence to support a male god at Çatalhöyük but if there was both a male and female god and goddess then I know the kind of gods they were like Proto-Indo-European mythology.

This series idea was addressed in, Anarchist Teaching as Free Public Education or Free Education in the Public: VIDEO

Our 12 video series: Organized Oppression: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of power (9,000-4,000 years ago), is adapted from: The Complete and Concise History of the Sumerians and Early Bronze Age Mesopotamia (7000-2000 BC): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szFjxmY7jQA by “History with Cy

Show #1: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Samarra, Halaf, Ubaid)

Show #2: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Eridu “Tell Abu Shahrain”)

Show #3: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Uruk and the First Cities)

Show #4: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (First Kings)

Show #5: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Early Dynastic Period)

Show #6: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (King/Ruler Lugalzagesi)

Show #7: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Sargon and Akkadian Rule)

Show #8: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Naram-Sin, Post-Akkadian Rule, and the Gutians)

Show #9: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Gudea of Lagash and Utu-hegal)

Show #10: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Third Dynasty of Ur / Neo-Sumerian Empire)

Show #11: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Amorites, Elamites, and the End of an Era)

Show #12: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Aftermath and Legacy of Sumer)

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

The “Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries”

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ Atheist Leftist @Skepticallefty & I (Damien Marie AtHope) @AthopeMarie (my YouTube & related blog) are working jointly in atheist, antitheist, antireligionist, antifascist, anarchist, socialist, and humanist endeavors in our videos together, generally, every other Saturday.

Why Does Power Bring Responsibility?

Think, how often is it the powerless that start wars, oppress others, or commit genocide? So, I guess the question is to us all, to ask, how can power not carry responsibility in a humanity concept? I know I see the deep ethical responsibility that if there is power their must be a humanistic responsibility of ethical and empathic stewardship of that power. Will I be brave enough to be kind? Will I possess enough courage to be compassionate? Will my valor reach its height of empathy? I as everyone, earns our justified respect by our actions, that are good, ethical, just, protecting, and kind. Do I have enough self-respect to put my love for humanity’s flushing, over being brought down by some of its bad actors? May we all be the ones doing good actions in the world, to help human flourishing.

I create the world I want to live in, striving for flourishing. Which is not a place but a positive potential involvement and promotion; a life of humanist goal precision. To master oneself, also means mastering positive prosocial behaviors needed for human flourishing. I may have lost a god myth as an atheist, but I am happy to tell you, my friend, it is exactly because of that, leaving the mental terrorizer, god belief, that I truly regained my connected ethical as well as kind humanity.

Cory and I will talk about prehistory and theism, addressing the relevance to atheism, anarchism, and socialism.

At the same time as the rise of the male god, 7,000 years ago, there was also the very time there was the rise of violence, war, and clans to kingdoms, then empires, then states. It is all connected back to 7,000 years ago, and it moved across the world.

Cory Johnston: https://damienmarieathope.com/2021/04/cory-johnston-mind-of-a-skeptical-leftist/?v=32aec8db952d  

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist (YouTube)

Cory Johnston: Mind of a Skeptical Leftist @Skepticallefty

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist By Cory Johnston: “Promoting critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics by covering current events and talking to a variety of people. Cory Johnston has been thoughtfully talking to people and attempting to promote critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics.” http://anchor.fm/skepticalleft

Cory needs our support. We rise by helping each other.

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ @Skepticallefty Evidence-based atheist leftist (he/him) Producer, host, and co-host of 4 podcasts @skeptarchy @skpoliticspod and @AthopeMarie

Damien Marie AtHope (“At Hope”) Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist. Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Poet, Philosopher, Advocate, Activist, Psychology, and Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Historian.

Damien is interested in: Freedom, Liberty, Justice, Equality, Ethics, Humanism, Science, Atheism, Antiteism, Antireligionism, Ignosticism, Left-Libertarianism, Anarchism, Socialism, Mutualism, Axiology, Metaphysics, LGBTQI, Philosophy, Advocacy, Activism, Mental Health, Psychology, Archaeology, Social Work, Sexual Rights, Marriage Rights, Woman’s Rights, Gender Rights, Child Rights, Secular Rights, Race Equality, Ageism/Disability Equality, Etc. And a far-leftist, “Anarcho-Humanist.”

I am not a good fit in the atheist movement that is mostly pro-capitalist, I am anti-capitalist. Mostly pro-skeptic, I am a rationalist not valuing skepticism. Mostly pro-agnostic, I am anti-agnostic. Mostly limited to anti-Abrahamic religions, I am an anti-religionist. 

To me, the “male god” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 7,000 years ago, whereas the now favored monotheism “male god” is more like 4,000 years ago or so. To me, the “female goddess” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 11,000-10,000 years ago or so, losing the majority of its once prominence around 2,000 years ago due largely to the now favored monotheism “male god” that grow in prominence after 4,000 years ago or so. 

My Thought on the Evolution of Gods?

Animal protector deities from old totems/spirit animal beliefs come first to me, 13,000/12,000 years ago, then women as deities 11,000/10,000 years ago, then male gods around 7,000/8,000 years ago. Moralistic gods around 5,000/4,000 years ago, and monotheistic gods around 4,000/3,000 years ago. 

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

Damien Marie AtHope (Said as “At” “Hope”)/(Autodidact Polymath but not good at math):

Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist, Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Jeweler, Poet, “autodidact” Philosopher, schooled in Psychology, and “autodidact” Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Pre-Historian (Knowledgeable in the range of: 1 million to 5,000/4,000 years ago). I am an anarchist socialist politically. Reasons for or Types of Atheism

My Website, My Blog, & Short-writing or QuotesMy YouTube, Twitter: @AthopeMarie, and My Email: damien.marie.athope@gmail.com

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