Arkaim:  the “Stonehenge” of Russia, a Henge-like Structure with a Nearby Kurgan Burial, Ritual Stone Cercles, and Pyramidal Houses

Arkaim it thought to be associated with Early Proto-Indo-Iranian of the Sintashta Culture, which Dates to Around 4,420–3,820 Years Ago. The Sintashta culture, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture or Sintashta-Arkaim culture, is a late Middle Bronze Age archaeological culture of the northern Eurasian steppe on the borders of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ref, ref

“The earliest known chariots have been found in Sintashta burials, and the culture is considered a strong candidate for the origin of the technology, which spread throughout the Old World and played an important role in ancient warfare. Sintashta settlements are also remarkable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy carried out there, which is unusual for a steppe culture. The Sintashta culture emerged from the interaction of two antecedent cultures, the Poltavka culture, and the Abashevo culture. Because of the difficulty of identifying the remains of Sintashta sites beneath those of later settlements, the culture was only recently distinguished from the Andronovo culture. It is now recognized as a separate entity forming part of the “Andronovo horizon”. Genetic results suggest that the Sintashta culture emerged as a result of eastward migration of peoples from the Corded Ware culture.” ref 

The Bronze Age People of the Arkaim Valley (the problem of continuity of population from the Yamnaya to the Sintashta culture) ref

“This paper deals with cranial remains from the cemeteries of the Yamnaya (Pit-grave) and Sintashta archaeological cultures investigated in the areas directly adjacent to the fortified settlement Arkaim, which belongs to the Chelyabinsk State Historical and Cultural Reserve «Arkaim» and the Kizil Valley. Each sample has its unique morphological features. Based on the similarity of some features, the authors suggest a probable genetic link between the carriers of both cultures; however, this relationship is not linear. These two groups of people belong to different archaeological cultures. Morphological differences indicate a chronological gap between the groups which was required for the formation of the specific image of the Sintashta residents. Trans-Urals’ steppe exploration by the people of the Yamnaya (Pit-grave) culture was apparently accompanied by a certain cross-breeding with indigenous inhabitants of the territory, i. e. Botai Late Copper Age culture.” ref

Andronovo Culture

“The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. 2000–900 BC in western Siberia and the central Eurasian Steppe. The older Sintashta culture (2200–1800 BC), formerly included within the Andronovo culture, is now considered separately within Early Andronovo cultures. Most researchers associate the Andronovo horizon with early Indo-Iranian languages, though it may have overlapped the early Uralic-speaking area at its northern fringe. According to a genetic study, the Andronovo culture and the preceding Sintashta culture are partially derived from the Corded Ware culture, given the higher proportion of ancestry matching the earlier farmers of Europe, similar to the admixture found in the genomes of the Corded Ware population.” ref

Warfare and Linguistic identity

Indo-Aryan migration

“The people of the Sintashta culture are thought to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, the ancestor of the Indo-Iranian language family. This identification is based primarily on similarities between sections of the Rig Veda, an Indian religious text which includes ancient Indo-Iranian hymns recorded in Vedic Sanskrit, with the funerary rituals of the Sintashta culture as revealed by archaeology. Many cultural similarities with Sintashta have also been detected in the Nordic Bronze Age of ScandinaviaThere is linguistic evidence of interaction between Finno-Ugric and Indo-Iranian languages, showing influences from the Indo-Iranians into the Finno-Ugric culture. From the Sintashta culture, the Indo-Iranian followed the migrations of the Indo-Iranians to Anatolia, India, and Iran. From the 9th century BCE onward, Iranian languages also migrated westward with the Scythians back to the Pontic steppe where the proto-Indo-Europeans came from.” ref

“The preceding Abashevo culture was already marked by endemic intertribal warfare; intensified by ecological stress and competition for resources in the Sintashta period, this drove the construction of fortifications on an unprecedented scale and innovations in military technique such as the invention of the war chariot. Increased competition between tribal groups may also explain the extravagant sacrifices seen in Sintashta burials, as rivals sought to outdo one another in acts of conspicuous consumption analogous to the North American potlatch tradition. Sintashta artifact types such as spearheads, trilobed arrowheads, chisels, and large shaft-hole axes were taken east. Many Sintashta graves are furnished with weapons, although the composite bow associated later with chariotry does not appear. Sintashta sites have produced finds of horn and bone, interpreted as furniture (grips, arrow rests, bow ends, string loops) of bows; there is no indication that the bending parts of these bows included anything other than wood. Arrowheads are also found, made of stone or bone rather than metal. These arrows are short, 50–70 cm long, and the bows themselves may have been correspondingly short.” ref

Iranian peoples

“The Iranian peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic groupThe Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a separate branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid-2nd millennium BCE. At their peak of expansion in the mid-1st millennium BC, the territory of the Iranian peoples stretched across the entire Eurasian Steppe from the Great Hungarian Plain in the west to the Ordos Plateau in the east, to the Iranian Plateau in the south. The Western Iranian empires of the south came to dominate much of the ancient world from the 6th century BCE, leaving an important cultural legacy; and the Eastern Iranians of the steppe played a decisive role in the development of Eurasian nomadism and the Silk Road.” ref

“The ancient Iranian peoples who emerged after the 1st millennium BCE include the Alans, Bactrians, Dahae, Khwarezmians, Massagetae, Medes, Parthians, Persians, Sagartians, Sakas, Sarmatians, Scythians, Sogdians, and probably Cimmerians, among other Iranian-speaking peoples of Western Asia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Eastern Steppe. In the 1st millennium AD, their area of settlement, which was mainly concentrated in steppes and deserts of Eurasia, was reduced as a result of Slavic, Germanic, Turkic, and Mongol expansions and many were subjected to Slavicisation and Turkification. Modern Iranian-speaking peoples include the Baloch, Gilaks, Kurds, Lurs, Mazanderanis, Ossetians, Pamiris, Pashtuns, Persians, Tajiks, the Talysh, Wakhis, Yaghnobis, and Zazas. Their current distribution spreads across the Iranian Plateau, stretching from the Caucasus in the north to the Persian Gulf in the south and from Eastern Turkey in the west to Western Xinjiang in the east—a region that is sometimes called the Iranian Cultural Continent, representing the extent of the Iranian-speakers and the significant influence of the Iranian peoples through the geopolitical reach of Greater Iran.” ref

“The remains of four individuals ascribed to the Sintastha culture were analyzed. One male carried haplogroup R1a and J1c1b1a, while the other carried R1a1a1b and J2b1a2a. The two females carried U2e1e and U2e1h respectively. The study found a close autosomal genetic relationship between peoples of Corded Ware culture and Sintashta culture, which “suggests similar genetic sources of the two,” and may imply that “the Sintashta derives directly from an eastward migration of Corded Ware peoples.” Sintashta individuals and Corded Ware individuals both had a relatively higher ancestry proportion derived from Central Europe, and both differed markedly in such ancestry from the population of the Yamnaya Culture and most individuals of the Poltavka Culture that preceded Sintashta in the same geographic region. The Bell Beaker culture, the Unetice culture, and contemporary Scandinavian cultures were also found to be closely genetically related to Corded Ware. A particularly high lactose tolerance was found among Corded Ware and the closely related Nordic Bronze Age. In addition, the study found the Sintashta culture to be closely genetically related to the succeeding Andronovo culture. Researchers analyzed the remains of several members of the Sintashta culture. mtDNA was extracted from two females buried at the Petrovka settlement. They were found to be carrying subclades of U2 and U5. The remains of fifty individuals from the fortified Sintastha settlement of Kamennyi Ambar was analyzed. This was the largest sample of ancient DNA ever sampled from a single site.” ref

“The Y-DNA from thirty males was extracted. Eighteen carried R1a and various subclades of it (particularly subclades of R1a1a1), five carried subclades of R1b (particularly subclades of R1b1a1a), three carried R1, two carried Q1a and a subclade of it, one carried I2a1a1a, and one carried P1. The majority of mtDNA samples belonged to various subclades of U, while W, J, T, H, and K also occurred. A Sintashta male buried at Samara was found to be carrying R1b1a1a2 and J1c1b1a. The authors of the study found the Sintashta people to be closely genetically related to the people of the Corded Ware culture, the Srubnaya culture, the Potapovka culture, and the Andronovo culture. These were found to harbor mixed ancestry from the Yamnaya culture and peoples of the Central European Middle Neolithic. Sintashta people were deemed “genetically almost indistinguishable” from samples taken from the northwestern areas constituting the core of the Andronovo culture, which were “genetically largely homogeneous”. The genetic data suggested that the Sintashta culture was ultimately derived of a remigration of Central European peoples with steppe ancestry back into the steppe. Some Sintastha individuals displayed similarities with earlier samples collected at Khvalynsk.” ref

The origin of social complexity in the development of the Sintashta culture ref



Archeological Cultures of Steppe Nomads
Tripolye Culture (4000 – 3500 BC)
Sredny Stog Culture (4000 – 3000 BC)
Khvalynsk Culture
Karanovo VI Culture
Kemi Oba Culture
Usatovo Culture
Botai Culture
Poltavka Culture
Fatyanovo Culture
Abashevo Culture
Sintashta-Arkaim Culture
Early Bronze Age
Maikop Culture 3500 –  BC
Pit Grave Culture ( 3300 – 2300 BC
Baden culture
Funnel Beaker Culture (3300 – 3000 BC)
Catacomb Culture (2800 – 1900 BC
Middle Bronze Age
Timber Grave Culture (1900 – 1200 BC)
Andronovo Culture (1800 – 1200 BC)
Mnogovalikovaya Culture
Glina III/Monteoru Culture

Arkaïm-Sintachta: the experience of the development of the Eurasian steppes in the Bronze AgeArkaïm-Sintachta: Experiment of the development of Eurasian steppes in the Bronze Age: ref

“The “walled cities of the Earth” were a great discovery located on the eastern slopes of the Urals, the fortified cities date from the Middle Bronze Age. These fortified structures are particular to the archeology of the steppes. They were built according to geometric plans, the cities in oval being the oldest, the rectangular cities being the most recent. The most remarkable is the set of fortified structures specific to the culture of Sintachta-Arkaïm. This city is distinguished from the others by the unique integrity of the fortification works and by the burials which are linked to them. Located on a prominence, Arkaim consists of two defensive walls, perhaps a third, a rampart and a ditch. The space between the defensive walls was occupied by trapezoidal houses oriented like rays towards the center of the city. The center of the city, rectangular in shape, was not built and formed a place where homes were found. Complex entrances were in the four corners of the city. Excavations of fortified cities and burials have given us an idea of ​​the level of development of daily life during the Middle Bronze Age in the Transoural Plains.” ref

“Some scholars believe represents the proto-Indo-Iranians before their split into different groups and migration to Central Asia and from there to Persia and India and other parts of Eurasia.” ref 

“Arkaim was a fortified settlement, an outstanding memorial of the Bronze Age in Eurasia in the Chelyabinsk region. This is one of the 22 settlements of Sintashta culture of the South Trans-Ural. Its diameter is 170 m. The planning is well-preserved: the outer ditch, ruins of two concentric defensive walls with 66 dwellings. Up to two thousand people, the old metallurgists, and cattlemen could live there. Arkaim is an important page of the early history of the Indo-European population of the steppes. Based on the study of spore-pollen spectra and ancient buried paleosols ecological conditions of the Bronze Age with higher heat and water supply as compared to the current ones were restored. Ancient buried and modern soils, vegetation, and changes of their characteristics under the effect of burial, human impacts, and reserve regime have been studied. It is discussed the possible existence of ancient agriculture.” ref 

“The bones belong to a woman who lived almost 2,000 years ago and had an elongated skull because it was bound out of tribal tradition. A skeleton with an unusual-shaped skull (pictured) has been unearthed on a site known as Russia’s Stonehenge. The remains were found in Arkaim, near Chelyabinsk in central Russia – a settlement dating back almost 4,000 years. It is believed the woman belonged to a tribe that was part of what is now modern-day Ukraine. Archaeologists have revealed that the bones (pictured left) belong to a woman who lived around 6,000 years ago and had an elongated skull (shown right) because it was bound out of tribal tradition Arkaim known as Russia’s Stonehenge, which is believed to have been built in the 17th century BC. It is believed by some that, like its 5,000-year-old English counterpart, it was used to study the stars. But Arkaim is thought to be more advanced. Stonehenge allows for observations of 10 astronomical phenomena using 22 elements, while Arkaim enables observations of 18 phenomena using 30 elements. This means that ancient people could have observed and tracked certain events in the sky by using the site in certain ways from particular positions and that Arkaim offered more observable events than Stonehenge. It is just another of the mysteries to be unearthed at the spectacular site of Arkaim known as Russia’s Stonehenge. It is believed by some that, like its English counterpart, it was used to study of the stars, but Arkaim is thought to be more advanced. Stone circles found near the site are shown. A Russian archaeologist made the comparison between the two sites saying, Stonehenge offers an observational accuracy of 10-arc minutes to a degree, whereas Arkaim offers accuracy of a one-arc minute. This precision was unheard of at the time the monument is thought to have been built. As well as being a primitive astronomical observatory it was also a village that was fortified by two large stone circular walls. The settlement covers an area of some 220,000 square feet and consists of two circles of dwellings separated by a street, with a central community square in the center.” ref

Arkaim the Forgotten Valley

“Arkaim, the Russian equivalent of Stonehenge was discovered.  It is an ancient fortress in the Southern Urals steppe near the Kazakhstan border.  Archeologists vary on the age of the site as artifacts found there range from the 4th millennium BC to the 20th century BC. Arkaim is actually a valley where a significant number of archeological monuments from several different epochs have been exhumed.  Also called the “Land of Cities,” the Arkaim site contains Middle Bronze Age fortified settlements and necropolises.  More than 20 such remanents have been excavated over an area that extends approximately 200 miles between rivers flowing to the Caspian Sea and into the Artic Ocean.  “A geographical and mythological analysis of the ancient texts of Rigveda and Avesta allows…to infer that the “Land of Cities” was connected with the legendary countries of the ancient Aryans. At the Arkaim excavation site, it has been proposed, from a chain of horse burials, that the site has produced evidence that the cities could have been the home of the Aryans.  Numerous ancient Indian texts believed to have been written by the Aryans communicate analogous rituals.  These ancient Indian manuscripts and hymns tell of sacrifices and burials of horses, including the way the flesh is removed and the fact that the horse is buried with its master.  When paralleled with the way the skeletons and the graves were being dug up in Russia, it was concluded the sites were a millimeter-perfect match.  If archeologists confirm the cities as Aryan, they could be the fragments of a civilization that spread through Europe and much of Asia.  Their dialect has been identified as the precursor of modern Indo-European tongues, including English.  Words such as brother, guest, and oxen have been traced back to this archetype language.  After much discussion, archeologists have come to the agreement that there is some type of mother tongue, Proto-Indo-European, from which all languages emerged. Arkaim is not only a remarkable site historically, but there is also a large amount of evidence implying that it is one of the strongest anomaly zones in Russia.” ref 

“Locals believe Arkaim to be a sacred place.  Travelers go there all year round to acquire some of the healing water from the Bolshaya Karaganka River, and in the summer they coat themselves with clay, which they say helps to treat skin diseases.  There are several spirals next to the Arkaim fortress that visitors have made out of local stones.  Sightseers and locals alike have recommended that people walk on the stones barefooted or even better, naked, then stand in the center of the spiral and make a wish.  The mountains encompassing the fortress are also unusual.  The most famous one is Shamanka (or Bold Mountain).  People have been known to climb to the top of it to get positive energy, pray or even meditate.  It has also been known that people with serious medical conditions have been brought there for healing purposes.  Some of the lesser famous mountains encircling Arkaim are; Repentance Mountain, where visitors ascend to the top to ask for forgiveness, and Love Mountain, which is believed to bring personal luck to those who scale it. Nearby is Male Forest, which is frequently visited by women who have relationship troubles.  The rumor surrounding it is that a walk through the forest will make a woman popular with men.  Finally, the Drunken Forest near Grachinaya Mountain (also known as Blessed Mountain) is infamous for the Birch trees, whose trunks are abnormally crooked at the bottom.  It is alleged that people cannot stay there too long; otherwise, they risk losing their minds.” ref

“”4,250 to 3,400-Year-old Stonehenge from Russia: Arkaim?

Prehistory of the Steppes: ~5,000 – 1,000 BCE (7,000 to 3,000 years ago)

5,500 Years old birth of the State, the rise of Hierarchy, and the fall of Women’s status

The Fire Peoples-urns & metals. The R1b Conquest of Europe.

The Conquest of “Old Europe” and Central Europe (4200-2500 BCE) 

Kultepe? An archaeological site with a 4,000 years old women’s rights document.

Structure of Arkaim

“Arkaim (RussianАркаим) is an archaeological site in Russia, situated in the steppe of the Southern Ural, 8.2 km (5.10 mi) north-to-northwest of the village of Amursky and 2.3 km (1.43 mi) south-to-southeast of the village of Alexandrovsky in the Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia, just north of the border with Kazakhstan. It was discovered in 1987 by a team of archaeologists led by Gennady Zdanovich, preventing the planned flooding of the area for the creation of a reservoir. Arkaim is attributed to the early Indo-Europeans of the Sintashta culture, which some scholars believe represents the proto-Indo-Iranians before their split into different groups and migration to Central Asia and from there to Persia and India and other parts of Eurasia (see Indo-Aryan migration theory). Scholars have identified the structure of Arkaim as the cities built “reproducing the model of the universe” described in the ancient Indo-European spiritual literature, the Vedas, and the Avesta. The structure consists of three concentric rings of walls and three radial streets, reflecting the city of King Yima described in the Rigveda. The foundation walls and the dwellings of the second ring are built according to swastika-like patterns; the same symbol is found on various artifacts. Arkaim is designated as a “national and spiritual shrine” of Russia and has become a holy site for RodnoverZoroastrian, and other religious movements. The fortified citadel of Arkaim dates back to the 17th and 16th century BCE. More than twenty other structures built according to similar patterns have been found in a larger area spanning from the southern Urals’ region to the north of Kazakhstan, forming the so-called “Land of Towns“. Artifacts found at these sites date between the 4th millennium and the 20th century BCE.” ref 

“Arkaim was a circular stronghold, surrounded by two concentric bastions made of adobe with timber frames, and covered with unburnt clay bricks. Within the circles, close to the bastions, were around sixty dwellings with hearth, cellars, wells and metallurgical furnaces. They opened towards an inner circular street paved with wood. The street was lined by a covered drainage gutter with pits for water collection. At the center of the complex, there was a rectangular open space. The complex had four entries, consisting of intricately constructed passages and oriented towards the cardinal points. Evidence suggests that the complex was built according to a plan, which indicates that the society had a developed structure of roles and had leaders with great authority. The settlement covered about 220,000 square feet. The diameter of the enclosing wall was about 520 feet, and its thickness was of 13 to 16 feet. The height was of 18.04 feet. The settlement was surrounded with a 6-foot-7-inch-deep moat. Among the four gates, the main was the western one. The dwellings were between 1,200 to 1,900 square feet in area. The dwellings of the outer ring were thirty-nine or forty, with doors opening towards the circular street. The dwellings of the inner ring numbered twenty-seven, arranged along the inner wall, with doors opening towards the central square, which was about 82 by 89 feet in area. Zdanovich estimates that approximately 1,500 to 2,500 people could have lived in Arkaim. Surrounding Arkaim’s walls, were arable fields, 430–460 feet by 150 feet, irrigated by a system of canals and ditches.” ref

Religious movements and mysticism surrounding Arkaim

The discovery of Arkaim reinvigorated the debate about the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans, seemingly confirming its location in central Eurasia. After their discovery, Arkaim and the Land of Towns have been presented as the “land of the Aryans“, the centre of a statehood of a monarchical type, and ultimately the model for a new spiritual civilization harmonized with the universe. Agencies related to the Russian Orthodox Church have been critical of such activities of Arkaim’s archaeology. The discovery of Arkaim and the Land of Towns has fueled the growth of schools of thought among RodnoversRerikhiansZoroastrians and other movements which regard the archaeological site as the second homeland of the Aryans, who originally dwelt in Arctic regions and migrated southwards when the weather there became glacial, then spreading from central Eurasia to the east, south and west, founding other civilisations. According to them, all Vedic knowledge originated in the southern Urals. Some of them identify Arkaim as the Asgard of Odin spoken of in Germanic literature. The Russian Zoroastrian movement started by the Globa family identifies Arkaim as the place where Zoroaster was born. A great white swastika was carved on the nearest hill, and visitors to the site may buy swastika-shaped medallions. ref

The Sintashta-Arkaim culture

This site may have connections to the Sintashta culture, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture or Sintashta-Arkaim culture, is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the northern Eurasian steppe on the borders of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, dated to around 4,100 years ago or in the period of 2100–1800 BCE. The culture is named after the Sintashta archaeological site, in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. The Sintashta culture is widely regarded as the origin of the Indo-Iranian languages. The earliest known chariots have been found in Sintashta burials, and the culture is considered a strong candidate for the origin of the technology, which spread throughout the Old World and played an important role in ancient warfare. Sintashta settlements are also remarkable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy carried out there, which is unusual for a steppe culture. The Sintashta culture emerged from the interaction of two antecedent cultures, the Poltavka culture, and the Abashevo culture. Because of the difficulty of identifying the remains of Sintashta sites beneath those of later settlements, the culture was only recently distinguished from the Andronovo culture. It is now recognized as a separate entity forming part of the “Andronovo horizon”. Its immediate predecessor in the Ural-Tobol steppe was the Poltavka culture, an offshoot of the cattle-herding Yamnaya horizon that moved east into the region between 2800 and 2600 BCE. Several Sintashta towns were built over older Poltavka settlements or close to Poltavka cemeteries, and Poltavka motifs are common on Sintashta pottery. The Petrovka fortified settlement, namesake of the 2nd millennium BC Sintashta-Petrovka culture lies at the Ishim River, near the modern village of Petrovka in Zhambyl District, North Kazakhstan RegionKazakhstan. Sintashta material culture also shows the influence of the late Abashevo culture, derived from the Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, a collection of Corded Ware settlements were found close autosomal genetic relationship between peoples of Corded Ware culture and Sintashta culture, which “suggests similar genetic sources of the two,” and may imply that “the Sintashta derives directly from an eastward migration of Corded Ware peoples.” Sintashta individuals and Corded Ware individuals both had a relatively higher ancestry proportion derived from the early farmers of Central Europe, and both differed markedly in such ancestry from the population of the Yamnaya Culture and most individuals of the Poltavka Culture that preceded Sintashta in the same geographic region.” ref, ref 

“The first Sintashta settlements appeared around 2100 BCE, during a period of climatic change that saw the already arid Kazakh steppe region become even more cold and dry. The marshy lowlands around the Ural and upper Tobol rivers, previously favoured as winter refuges, became increasingly important for survival. Under these pressures both Poltavka and Abashevo herders settled permanently in river valley strongholds, eschewing more defensible hill-top locations. The Abashevo culture was already marked by endemic intertribal warfare; intensified by ecological stress and competition for resources in the Sintashta period, this drove the construction of fortifications on an unprecedented scale and innovations in military technique such as the invention of the war chariot. Increased competition between tribal groups may also explain the extravagant sacrifices seen in Sintashta burials, as rivals sought to outdo one another in acts of conspicuous consumption analogous to the North American potlatch tradition. Sintashta artefact types such as spearheads, trilobed arrowheads, chisels, and large shaft-hole axes were taken east. Many Sintashta graves are furnished with weapons, although the composite bow associated later with chariotry (A chariot) does not appear. Sintashta sites have produced finds of horn and bone, interpreted as furniture (grips, arrow rests, bow ends, string loops) of bows; there is no indication that the bending parts of these bows included anything other than wood. Arrowheads are also found, made of stone or bone rather than metal. These arrows are short, 50–70 cm long, and the bows themselves may have been correspondingly short. The people of the Sintashta culture are thought to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, the ancestor of the Indo-Iranian language family. This identification is based primarily on similarities between sections of the Rig Veda, an Indian religious text which includes ancient Indo-Iranian hymns recorded in Vedic Sanskrit, with the funerary rituals of the Sintashta culture as revealed by archaeology. There is, however, linguistic evidence of a list of common vocabulary between Finno-Ugric and Indo-Iranian languages. While its origin in the Ural region may ascribe the Sintashta culture exclusively to Indo-Iranian ethnicity, interpreting this culture as a blend of two cultures with two distinct languages is a reasonable hypothesis based on the evidence. From the Sintashta culture, the Indo-Iranian languages migrated with the Indo-Iranians to Anatolia, India, and Iran. From the 9th century BCE onward, Iranian languages also migrated westward with the Scythians back to the Pontic steppe where the proto-Indo-Europeans came from.” ref, ref

Here is archaeology info from Research Gate:

“In the southern Transural region, 22 fortified settlements and numerous archeological sites forming a complex named Country of Towns were found. For the last 20 years, data on the paleosols there have been obtained. The reconstructions of the climate of the Bronze Age in the Cis-Urals and Transurals were carried out after studying some archeological sites of the Country of Towns. Archaeologists refer many of these sites to the Middle Bronze Age, the Sintashta archeological culture (3800–4100 years ago), and the Pit Grave culture. The culture was named after the archeological complex located on the bank of the Sintashta River in Chelyabinsk oblast. The paleosols of the great Sintashta mound were characterized. The evolution of the Transural chernozems for the last 4000 years is shown; the similarities and differences in their development as compared to the chernozems of East Europe and northern Kazakhstan are shown. The possibility to use various characteristics of humic acids isolated from paleosols for the reconstruction of the six natural and agricultural landscapes in the past was revealed. The first well-preserved fortified site of the Bronze Age was found in Chelyabinsk oblast in 1987 and called Arkaim after the name of the highest point of the locality (398 m a.s.l.).” Ref

“The archeological sites occupy about 1% of the Arkaim valley area according to the interpretation of aerial photographs with the help of a special method. People developed this territory mainly in the Bronze Age (74% of all the sites (out of the total of 73) are referred to this time). In 1991, the reserve with the same name was organized to preserve this unique object. The reserve is located in the territory of the steppe zone of the southern Transural region (Bredinskii district, Chelyabinsk oblast; 52 ° 37–40 ′ N, 59 ° 32–37 ′ E). This article first presents the detailed characteristics of the paleosols and the results of the plant cover’s reconstruction at the site of Arkaim. These data are important for characterizing the development of the soils, the environmental conditions, and the variability of the climate in the Bronze Age and revealing the reasons for the phased settlement of the Urals region. The paleosols buried under the walls of the fortified settlement of Arkaim and the present-day background soils were the objects for the studies. The archeological excavations were conducted under the guidance of Zdanovich. The basis of the Arkaim fortifications was a ditch and inner and outside walls made of earthy materials and wood. According to the calculations of the archeologists, the height of the earth walls of the settlement was 0.7 and 1.4 m; presently, their height is approximately twice lower.” Ref

“The archeological site is located on a remnant (200 × 300 m 2 ) of the proluvial–alluvial surface at the confluence of the Utyaganka and Bol’shaya Karaganka Rivers (a tributary of the Ural River) at the altitude of 314.5 m (Fig. 1). This remnant is isolated and surrounded by river valleys and a depression—the former channel. The background recent soils occupy small areas and are represented by ordinary chernozems. Nowadays, the territory studied is referred to the steppe zone. The climate of the region is continental. The mean annual temperature is +1 to +3°C, the mean temperatures of January and July are –17 to –18°C and +19 to +20°C, respectively. The sum of the temperatures above 10 ° C is 1950–2300; the duration of the frost-free period is 111–125 days. The annual precipitation is 300–360 mm: 45% of it falls as showers in the summer and 10–12% in the winter. The depth of the snow cover does not exceed 25 cm. The soils freeze to a depth of 0.8–2.0 m. Snow thaws on the frozen soil, and the water does not penetrate into it. The moisture coefficient is 0.4–0.8. Hot winds and deflation significantly damage the soils and crops. Before the organization of the reserve, the territory of the remnant was used as a pasture. The vegetation is represented by forbs–sheep fescue–stipa associations and spirea ( Spiraea hypericifolia L. and S. crenata L.) and caragana ( Cargana frutex (L.) C. Koch). The background soil is a shallow, lowhumus, mid and weakly saline, strongly solonetzic, sandy loamy ordinary chernozem. The field morphological method comprising the profile’s description and photography was used for studying the soils. The reconstruction of the environmental conditions of the Bronze Age was performed considering the properties of the buried paleosols (seven pits) and the present-day background soils (ten pits). For the characterization of the background soils, the areas close in their altitude and texture to the soils of the cultural–historical complex were chosen. The territory is heterogeneous in terms of the particle-size composition of the parent rocks and soils. Therefore, ten test pits were made to the depth of 50 cm for the characterization of the background soils and their comparison with the paleosols. After analyzing their morphology, the place for the key pits for the background soils was chosen. The chemical properties of the soils were analyzed by traditional methods. The age of the site was determined from archeological findings according to the periodization and chronology of the historical cultures and using the radiocarbon dating of the paleosols’ humus.” Ref

“The dating was accomplished at the Kiev Radiocarbon Laboratory (supervised by N.N. Kovalyukh) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. A sample of the paleosol was taken from the depth of 0–2 cm, i.e., directly from the buried surface. This sample was analyzed using the palynological method by Gerasimenko and the microbiomorphic one by Gol’eva. The percentage of different higher plant microfossils was determined using a semigroup method. The ratio of the woody plant taxa to the total pollen of trees and shrubs was calculated; that of the herbaceous plants, to the total pollen of grasses and dwarf shrubs; and the ratio of the spores, to the total microfossils. The plants producing pollen and spores and the reconstructed zonal and local paleophytocenoses existed and exist in a definite landscape–climatic environment. Therefore, the results of the spore–pollen analysis of the paleosols allow one to obtain information on the formation and evolution of the landscapes. The fortress site of Arkaim has a cultural layer testifying to one stage of its settlement, although, according to the results of the archeological method, the majority of the localities from the Country of Towns functioned in two (3800–4100 and 3600 years ago) or more stages. The accuracy of determining the age by this method for archeological sites of the Bronze Age is ±100–200 years. The dating of constructing the walls at the ancient site was also performed according to the 14 C of the organic matter in the upper (0-5 cm) layer of the paleosols buried under its walls. The age of the humus was determined from the 14 C of the background soils. As the data of the radiocarbon dating of the paleosol humus were used for determining the time of constructing the artificial mounds and burying the soils, an approach suggested by Chichagova and Aleksandrovskii was used.” Ref

“According to this method, the age of the buried paleosols is calculated as the difference between the age of the humus in the 0 to 5cm layer of the paleosol and the age of the background soil. The uncalibrated age of the humus in the 0 to 5cm layer of the paleosols is 3840±140 years; its age in the 0 to 25cm layer of the background layer is 450±60 radiocarbon years. Thus, the uncalibrated date of constructing the earth mound of Arkaim is about 3400 years ago, or the calibrated dates with the significance of 1 σ and 2 σ are 3700–4000 (57.4%) and 3400–4250 (95.4%) years ago, respectively. Spore–pollen analysis. The palynological analysis of the 0 to 2cm paleosol layer was performed in 3 replicates. All the microfossils, including the pollen of the gramineous plants, were well preserved, although usually it is weakly preserved. The spore–pollen spectrum contained pollen of herbaceous plants (68%), tree species (20%), and spores of ferns and mosses (12%). The pollen’s composition was dominated by that of gramineous plants (33.5%) and forb species of 11 families (43.5%). The participation of sedges was 9%. Among the other monocotyledons (except for grasses and sedges), Liliaceae and Typhaceae were represented by a few pollen grains. The participation of xerophytic palinoforms was insignificant: Artemisia pollen (6.5%); the pollen of Chenopodiaceae, including Chenopodium album, Ch. botrys, and Kochia prostrata (5%); and one pollen grain of ephedra. In the pollen of the forbs group, the pollen of Lamiaceae predominated (14%); the participation of Rosaceae (6.5%, including Spiraea steppe shrub), Cichorinoideae (6%), Asteroideae (4%), and Fabaceae (5%) was also noticeable. The amount of Plantaginaceae (2%) and Ranunculaceae and Cannabaceae (1%) pollen was insignificant; a few pollen grains of Umbelliferae, Papaveraceae, and Boraginaceae were found. Among the pollen grains of grasses, large grains similar to those of cultural grasses (Cerealia) occurred. The rich forbs and the significant share of Rosaceae and Cichorinoideae, among which there were few steppe plants, show that precisely meadow plants formed the vegetation cover. However, the elevated share of Cichorinoideae and Asteroideae may be also explained by the anthropogenic factor. Their pollen was usually found in settlements.” Ref

“In addition, the distribution of Plantaginaceae and Chenopodiaceae ( Ch. album is a typical weed) might be related to the anthropogenic factor (trampling). Papaveraceae and Cannabaceae could also be weeds. The pollen of steppe plants predominated among the grains of Lamiaceae and Papaveraceae that were represented in the spectrum. Artemisia, hemp, and ephedra also belonged to these plants. The hemp pollen (in the size of its grain and pores) is very similar to that of the cultivated Cannabis sativa. On the whole, the participation of meadow elements was higher than that of steppe ones. The problem of the cultivated cereals will be considered separately. The existence of farming in Arkaim in the Late Bronze Age (3600 years ago) is supposed. The deposits studied by the authors of the article belong to an earlier time interval than that described by E.A. Spiridonova; the amount of pollen morphologically similar to that of Cerealia was greater than that in the settlements of the Srubnaya culture in the steppe zone of Ukraine. At the site of Arkaim, the macroremains of Phragmites and Bromopsis were found, and the pollen grains of these wild grasses (especially of Phragmites ) were similar to the pollen of cultivated grasses. The presence of other hydro- and hygrophytic plants ( Typha and sedges) confirms the relative closeness of the site to aquatic and waterlogged objects, from which Phragmites pollen could also be brought. Among the spores, those of ferns (Polypodiaceae (5.5%) and Pteridium (2%)) predominated; the amount of green moss spores was 4%. Among the remains of tree species, the microfossils of pine amounted to 80%. Pollen of alder (2 grains), spruce, birch, apple, and honeysuckle (1 grain) were found. The presence of a few microfossils of broadleaved species (elm, Tatarian maple, and Tilia cordata ) is of special interest. Well-preserved grains of Tatarian maple and elm were reliably identified. Macroremains of elm were also found in the ancient settlement of Arkaim. One can suggest that, along with the above mentioned shrubs, these plants were in the undergrowth of pine forests or occurred as small steppe groves. The size of the lime tree pollen grains, as compared to those of this species palynoforms in Eastern Europe, was smaller as it was reduced (probably, it was produced by trees growing at the periphery of their natural range).” Ref

“Based on the content (%) of the tree species pollen, one can suggest that the forests were located at some distance from the settlement. Probably, at that time, as nowadays, they occupied the upper parts of the valley slopes. When the settlement existed, pine forests with birch and spruce grew there; the forest margins were occupied by honeysuckle and representatives of Maleae (hawthorn, hedge rose, and gean). The ground cover consisted of Polypodiaceaeand, Pteridium ferns, and green mosses. Probably, on the steppe, the named Maleae shrubs (along with spiraea) formed separate formations that occupied small areas. On the shrub steppe of Donbass and eastern Crimea, the participation of Maleae (hawthorn, hedge rose, wild pear, and black thorn) in the spore–pollen spectra was much higher. Alder rarely occurred on the floodplains. Thus, during the time under discussion, the Arkaim settlement was located on the forbs–grass or grass–forbs steppe with the significant participation of meadow forbs. At some distance from the settlement, open pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) forests with ferns in the ground cover and shrubs at their margins grew. Probably, there were small groups of steppe shrubs and not very high trees, including broadleaved species— elm and Tatarian maple. At a small distance from the settlement, there were moist areas with sedges; typha; alder; and, probably, reed.” Ref

“The human effect on the vegetation was manifested in the higher participation of herbaceous plants (weeds) occupying the disturbed areas—Cichorioideae; Asteroidaea; Chenopodiaceae; and probably Plantaginaceae, Cannabaceae, and Papaveraceae. The morphology of the pollen of the grasses and cannabis, which are similar to their cultivated variants, requires further study. Thus, the spore–pollen spectrum of the paleosol from the Arkaim settlement is referred to the steppe type, which is close to the transitional forest-steppe one. Based on the composition of the vegetation, the climate (or microclimate) was not supposed to be droughty and cool. The presence of pollen of broad-leaved species (elm, Tatarian maple, and lime trees), typha, and cannabis allows one to suggest that, at the time considered, the climate was somewhat warmer than the present-day one. In the remnant nearby the river, where the settlement was located, there were as many meadow plants in the grass cover as at the present time. The recent forest vegetation (small aspen–birch and larch–birch–pine forests with grass cover in steppe saucers), as compared to the pine forests with fern cover, reflects the more continental and cool climate conditions. Larch pollen did not occur in the paleosol; it is worth noting that this pollen is poorly preserved. In the present-day vegetation, alder and spruce are absent; these hygrophytes occurred at the time when the settlement existed. The main thing was that the low content of pollen of xerophytic and halophytic herbaceous plants in the paleosols did not correspond to the recent wide distribution of Artemisia and the vegetation typical for solonetzes. Thus, the results of the palynological analysis showed that, during building the wall around the settlement, the climate of the region was more humid and warm than the recent one. The microbiomorphic analysis of the 0- to 2-cm layer of the paleosol performed by A.A. Gol’eva allowed one to find well-preserved phytoliths: the content of dicotyledons was 46%, and those of steppe and meadow grasses were 29 and 17%, respectively.” Ref

“The number of phytoliths of coniferous trees, forest grasses, mosses, and ferns amounted to 2–3% each. One whole diatom and many cuticular clots of plants and the animals’ coprolites were observed. The presence of whole diatom skeletons testified to the rather humid conditions that existed when the biocenosis developed, while water stagnation and water logging were not recorded. Thus, the microbiomorphic analysis showed that, during the formation of the ancient upper soil layer, meadow forbs and the steppe grasses predominated. A spore–pollen analysis was first performed during the archeological excavations in the Arkaim settlement in the 1990s. The palynological studies of the reference soils from the depth of 65 to 70 cm having the 14 С uncalibrated age of 4130±110 demonstrated the existence of arid conditions at that time. These data do not agree with our results, probably, due to the fact that E.A. Spiridonova used the soil samples of the more ancient radiocarbon age for the spore–pollen analysis. The reference soils for the Arkaim site were studied in 10 pits. The lithological profiles are as follows: the upper layer up to the depth of 80–100 cm is sandy-loamy or loamy sandy with a great amount of coarse and fine sand (57–68%), pebbles, and gravel (6–17%). The underlying layer 100–220 cm thick consisted of alternating coarse and fine sandy layers. Therefore, the pits were not dug deeper than 1.8–2.2 m. The upper horizons of the reference soils and the paleosols did not differ in their texture. In the reference soils, the texture of the second 0.5cm layer became heavier; in the 50 to 100cm layer of the paleosols, the content of physical clay decreased. The main properties of the soils studied are given in Table 4. The reaction (pH water) in the A1 and AB horizons of the reference soils was neutral to weakly alkaline; in the deeper horizons, it was alkaline.” Ref

“The humus profile (A + AB) of the reference soils was 37±4 cm, changing from 26 to 45 cm. The thickness of the humus horizon (A1) in these soils was 22±6 cm (18–27cm). In the surface layer, the organic matter content was 3.04±0.38%, and it drastically decreased downwards: in the AB horizon, down to 1.43±0.18%; in Bca, down to 0.51±0.14%. In this part of the soil profile, the dark-colored tongues alternated with the yellow-brown ones. The tongues are formed due to the alternation of winter freezing and summer drying. The reference soil effervesced from HCl at the depth of 25–35 cm in the space between the humus tongues; continuous effervescence was observed in the 38 to 220cm layer. At the depth of 3–53 cm, the content of carbonates was 4.9±3.7%. Their maximum (9.3–10.5%) was found at the depth of 70–150 cm; in the underlying rock, the carbonate content was insignificant. In the 0 to 1cm layer, the weighed average of the СаСО 3 content was 7%. Carbonates occurred as rare mottles, small dots, and in a finely dispersed form. Gypsum was registered from the depth of 50 cm. Readily soluble soils appeared at the depth of 20–25 cm, and their content was 0.4–0.7%. In the upper soil layers, HCO 3- predominated among the anions; in the lower layer, a significant share belonged to SO 4-2 and С l – along with HCO 3- . Among the cations, the ions of sodium were the dominant ones. In the reference soils, alkalinity was revealed in the AB horizon. The degree of the soil’s salinization is medium, while that of alkalinity is strong. The content of the clay fraction determined using the elutriation analysis was 15–17%; the differentiation of the studied soil profiles in terms of the clay content is weak. The traditional method for the determination of the clay content with the preliminary treatment with sodium pyrophosphate provides for the weaker extraction of the clay fraction, especially from the A1 horizon.” Ref

“These data allowed one to conclude that, in the soil studied, a significant part of the clay fraction was in the composition of the aggregates that are not dispersed when treating with sodium pyrophosphate. The paleosols buried under the wall of the settlement of Arkaim are dated to the Middle Bronze Age— the explosion of the Sintashta archeological culture. Seven buried soils were studied. The thickness of the humus horizon of the paleosols (35±4 cm) is close to that of the reference soils. The humus content in the paleosols is a bit less than that in the recent soils. In the A1 horizon, the C org content is 1.17%; its reconstructed content is 2.93±0.33; the C org content in the reference soils is 3.04±0.38. In the course of the burial, the humus content in the paleosols decreased by 50–60% due to the diagenetic processes. The morphology and distribution of the humus tongues within the buried and reference soils are similar. In the ancient soils of the Arkaim site, the maximal carbonate content is confined to the same depth as in the reference soils, but it is less strongly pronounced. The СаСО 3 concentration in this horizon is 6.3-7.3%. In the underlying rock, at the depth of 103–130 cm, it decreased to 4.5%. The weighted average of the СаСО 3 content in the 0 to 1m layer is 6%. The reaction (pH water) is alkaline along the whole profile (9.3-9.5). The alkalinity is weak and medium. Readily soluble salts occurred along the whole profile of the buried soils. In the upper layers of the ancient soils buried under the earth walls, they appeared as a result of diagenesis, i.e., due to the partial migration of readily soluble salts from the material of the earth wall. The latter was made of a mixture of the ancient soil horizons that contained some amounts of carbonates and readily soluble salts. Presently, the lower layer of this material contains 0.21% readily soluble salts. Their concentration in the paleosols was less than in the reference soils (0.3%), and their composition was the same as that in the reference soils. The content of the clay fraction was somewhat greater than that in the reference soil (17–19%).” Ref

“According to the data of the elutriation method, the yield of the clay fraction was lower than that determined by the pyrophosphate method. In the A1 horizon, the differences between these values were insignificant. Therefore, the amount of waterstable aggregates that were not disintegrated by pyrophosphate was much lower than that in the background chernozem. Close characteristics of the properties were obtained for the paleosols of a mound constructed 3.9 thousand years ago nearby the settlement of Ale ksandrovskii 1.5 km far from the Arkaim reserve. Thus, one can note that the paleosols and the background soils are identified as ordinary chernozems. The differences between them were related to the higher salinity and alkalinity in the present period. Based on the comparison of the properties of the buried and reference soils, one can conclude that the climatic conditions in the time of the functioning of the fortress of Arkaim were close to the present-day ones. According to the data of the palynological studies, we concluded that the climate during the construction of the settlement walls was much more humid and warm than the present-day one. The differences between the conclusions reached can be explained by the fact that the plant cover as compared to the soils is more sensitive to climatic changes. The plant cover reaches equilibrium with the environmental conditions faster than the soil does. Thus, in the time of building the fortress, as judged by the reconstruction of the plant cover using the palynological method, the climate was much warmer and more humid than nowadays. The duration of this period appeared to be shortterm, and the soil’s properties could not be transformed and reach an equilibrium with the changed environment.” Ref

“Therefore, they reflect the situation of the previous period with the climatic parameters close to the recent ones. The southern Trans-Urals is a compact range of the developing Sintashta culture of the Middle Bronze Age. In this period, a fullscale economy of the productive type was completely established. This type of economy assumes a settled population living in permanent dwellings and fortified urban centers; developed pastoral herding and early farming first appeared in this region. For the organization of the fields, channels were dug, the old river beds were used for irrigation waters, and flood irrigation (liman system) was applied. We should like to compare some characteristics of the paleosols and their environment in different regions during the Bronze Age that were obtained by other researchers. Close characteristics were obtained in studying the properties of the paleosols in the Arkaim site and the soils buried under the mound created 3900 years ago nearby the settlement of Aleksandrovskii at a distance of 1.5 km from the Arkaim reserve. When studying 20 paleosols under mounds in the Orenburg CisUrals region, where archeological findings were dated using the radiocarbon method, it was established that, in the late Yamniy period (4000 years ago), the climate of this region was close to the present-day one; 3700–3800 years ago, the climate in the period of the Srubnaya culture was less continental than that at the present time, probably, due to the cooler summers. The probable cooling in the initial and developed periods of the Srubnaya generality is confirmed by the results of studying the cultural layers of sites and natural sections in northwestern Orenburg oblast.” Ref

“An analysis of the paleosols under the mounds in the Samara–Volga River basin dated by 14 C revealed that, in the period of the Potapovo archeological culture (3799–3900 years ago), the temperature was lower and the precipitation increased. As a result, the steppe chernozems were replaced by forest-steppe ones. Some specialists have not revealed sharp changes in the climate for the territory of the desert–steppe zone in the period of 3500–4000 years ago. This conclusion is derived from considering the main soil properties and the results of the biomorphic analysis of the soils under mounds and the specific features of the paleosols and the deposits of the Ergeni balka systems in the territory of Kalmykia. Similar climatic characteristics of this period in the northwestern Caspian region were obtained when investigating some biogeocenoses: permanent shelters of mammals and birds and the vegetation (palynological data). According to the results of the spore–pollen analysis and the radiocarbon datings of the samples from several pits (5 and 10 m deep) in the VolgaAkhtuba floodplain, continuous paleoclimatic records for 10 years were obtained. Bolikhovskaya first revealed 26 stages of changes in the vegetation and climate of this region in the Holocene; the period of the Bronze Age (4200–3700 years ago), as compared to the present-day one, was characterized as the climatic optimum with warmer and more humid conditions. There are contradictory opinions on the climate at that time in the southern Volga River and lower Don River basins and in the Middle Russian Upland. The existence of contradictory conclusions concerning the paleoclimate during the Middle Bronze Age is explained by many reasons; they need special consideration. (1) The comparison of the properties of the recent reference (10 pits) soils and paleosols (7 pits) preserved under the walls of the fortified settlement of Arkaim belonging to the Sinashta archeological culture (southern Transurals) at the turn of the 2nd to 3rd millennia BC has been accomplished. (2) Based on the results of the palynological and microbiomorphic analyses, the plant cover of the paleosols (0–2 cm) was reconstructed. The pine forests with fern ground cover, the admixture of hygrophytic.” Ref

Strange ‘conehead’ skeleton unearthed at Russia’s Stonehenge: Elongated head was bound in tribal tradition 2,000 years ago

  • Skeleton with long skull was unearthed in Arkaim, central Russia
  • It’s thought to belong to a woman living almost 2,000 years ago
  • Her skull is elongated because it was bound out of tribal tradition
  • Arkaim is known as Russia’s Stonehenge because it may have been used by ancient people to study the stars, like the British Stonehenge

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

refref, ref

Groups partially derived from the Ancient North Eurasians

“The ANE lineage is defined by association with the MA-1, or “Mal’ta boy”, remains of 24,000 years ago in central Siberia Mal’ta-Buret’ culture 24,000-15,000 years ago. The Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) samples (Afontova Gora 3, Mal’ta 1, and Yana-RHS) show evidence for minor gene flow from an East Asian-related group (simplified by the Amis, Han, or Tianyuan) but no evidence for ANE-related geneflow into East Asians (Amis, Han, Tianyuan), except the Ainu, of North Japan.” ref 

“The ANE lineage is defined by association with the MA-1, or “Mal’ta boy”, remains of 24,000 years ago in central Siberia Mal’ta-Buret’ culture 24,000-15,000 years ago “basal to modern-day Europeans”. Some Ancient North Eurasians also carried East Asian populations, such as Tianyuan Man.” ref

“Bronze-age-steppe Yamnaya and Afanasevo cultures were ANE at around 50% and Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) at around 75% ANE. Karelia culture: Y-DNA R1a-M417 8,400 years ago, Y-DNA J, 7,200 years ago, and Samara, of Y-haplogroup R1b-P297 7,600 years ago is closely related to ANE from Afontova Gora, 18,000 years ago around the time of blond hair first seen there.” ref 

Ancient North Eurasian

“In archaeogenetics, the term Ancient North Eurasian (often abbreviated as ANE) is the name given to an ancestral West Eurasian component that represents descent from the people similar to the Mal’ta–Buret’ culture and populations closely related to them, such as from Afontova Gora and the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site. Significant ANE ancestry are found in some modern populations, including Europeans and Native Americans.” ref 

“The ANE lineage is defined by association with the MA-1, or “Mal’ta boy“, the remains of an individual who lived during the Last Glacial Maximum, 24,000 years ago in central Siberia, Ancient North Eurasians are described as a lineage “which is deeply related to Paleolithic/Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe,” meaning that they diverged from Paleolithic Europeans a long time ago.” ref

“The ANE population has also been described as having been “basal to modern-day Europeans” but not especially related to East Asians, and is suggested to have perhaps originated in Europe or Western Asia or the Eurasian Steppe of Central Asia. However, some samples associated with Ancient North Eurasians also carried ancestry from an ancient East Asian population, such as Tianyuan Man. Sikora et al. (2019) found that the Yana RHS sample (31,600 BP) in Northern Siberia “can be modeled as early West Eurasian with an approximately 22% contribution from early East Asians.” ref

“Populations genetically similar to MA-1 were an important genetic contributor to Native AmericansEuropeansCentral AsiansSouth Asians, and some East Asian groups, in order of significance. Lazaridis et al. (2016:10) note “a cline of ANE ancestry across the east-west extent of Eurasia.” The ancient Bronze-age-steppe Yamnaya and Afanasevo cultures were found to have a noteworthy ANE component at ~50%.” ref

“According to Moreno-Mayar et al. 2018 between 14% and 38% of Native American ancestry may originate from gene flow from the Mal’ta–Buret’ people (ANE). This difference is caused by the penetration of posterior Siberian migrations into the Americas, with the lowest percentages of ANE ancestry found in Eskimos and Alaskan Natives, as these groups are the result of migrations into the Americas roughly 5,000 years ago.” ref 

“Estimates for ANE ancestry among first wave Native Americans show higher percentages, such as 42% for those belonging to the Andean region in South America. The other gene flow in Native Americans (the remainder of their ancestry) was of East Asian origin. Gene sequencing of another south-central Siberian people (Afontova Gora-2) dating to approximately 17,000 years ago, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures to that of Mal’ta boy-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum.” ref

“The earliest known individual with a genetic mutation associated with blonde hair in modern Europeans is an Ancient North Eurasian female dating to around 16000 BCE from the Afontova Gora 3 site in Siberia. It has been suggested that their mythology may have included a narrative, found in both Indo-European and some Native American fables, in which a dog guards the path to the afterlife.” ref

“Genomic studies also indicate that the ANE component was introduced to Western Europe by people related to the Yamnaya culture, long after the Paleolithic. It is reported in modern-day Europeans (7%–25%), but not of Europeans before the Bronze Age. Additional ANE ancestry is found in European populations through paleolithic interactions with Eastern Hunter-Gatherers, which resulted in populations such as Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers.” ref

“The Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) split from the ancestors of European peoples somewhere in the Middle East or South-central Asia, and used a northern dispersal route through Central Asia into Northern Asia and Siberia. Genetic analyses show that all ANE samples (Afontova Gora 3, Mal’ta 1, and Yana-RHS) show evidence for minor gene flow from an East Asian-related group (simplified by the Amis, Han, or Tianyuan). In contrast, no evidence for ANE-related geneflow into East Asians (Amis, Han, Tianyuan), except the Ainu, was found.” ref

“Genetic data suggests that the ANE formed during the Terminal Upper-Paleolithic (36+-1,5ka) period from a deeply European-related population, which was once widespread in Northern Eurasia, and from an early East Asian-related group, which migrated northwards into Central Asia and Siberia, merging with this deeply European-related population. These population dynamics and constant northwards geneflow of East Asian-related ancestry would later gave rise to the “Ancestral Native Americans” and Paleosiberians, which replaced the ANE as dominant population of Siberia.” ref

Groups partially derived from the Ancient North Eurasians

Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) is a lineage derived predominantly (75%) from ANE. It is represented by two individuals from Karelia, one of Y-haplogroup R1a-M417, dated c. 8.4 kya, the other of Y-haplogroup J, dated c. 7.2 kya; and one individual from Samara, of Y-haplogroup R1b-P297, dated c. 7.6 kya. This lineage is closely related to the ANE sample from Afontova Gora, dated c. 18 kya. After the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, the Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHG) and EHG lineages merged in Eastern Europe, accounting for early presence of ANE-derived ancestry in Mesolithic Europe. Evidence suggests that as Ancient North Eurasians migrated West from Eastern Siberia, they absorbed Western Hunter-Gatherers and other West Eurasian populations as well.” ref

Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer (CHG) is represented by the Satsurblia individual dated ~13 kya (from the Satsurblia cave in Georgia), and carried 36% ANE-derived admixture. While the rest of their ancestry is derived from the Dzudzuana cave individual dated ~26 kya, which lacked ANE-admixture, Dzudzuana affinity in the Caucasus decreased with the arrival of ANE at ~13 kya Satsurblia.” ref

Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherer (SHG) is represented by several individuals buried at Motala, Sweden ca. 6000 BC. They were descended from Western Hunter-Gatherers who initially settled Scandinavia from the south, and later populations of EHG who entered Scandinavia from the north through the coast of Norway.” ref

“Iran Neolithic (Iran_N) individuals dated ~8.5 kya carried 50% ANE-derived admixture and 50% Dzudzuana-related admixture, marking them as different from other Near-Eastern and Anatolian Neolithics who didn’t have ANE admixture. Iran Neolithics were later replaced by Iran Chalcolithics, who were a mixture of Iran Neolithic and Near Eastern Levant Neolithic.” ref

Ancient Beringian/Ancestral Native American are specific archaeogenetic lineages, based on the genome of an infant found at the Upward Sun River site (dubbed USR1), dated to 11,500 years ago. The AB lineage diverged from the Ancestral Native American (ANA) lineage about 20,000 years ago.” ref

“West Siberian Hunter-Gatherer (WSHG) are a specific archaeogenetic lineage, first reported in a genetic study published in Science in September 2019. WSGs were found to be of about 30% EHG ancestry, 50% ANE ancestry, and 20% to 38% East Asian ancestry.” ref

Western Steppe Herders (WSH) is the name given to a distinct ancestral component that represents descent closely related to the Yamnaya culture of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. This ancestry is often referred to as Yamnaya ancestry or Steppe ancestry.” ref

“Late Upper Paeolithic Lake Baikal – Ust’Kyakhta-3 (UKY) 14,050-13,770 BP were mixture of 30% ANE ancestry and 70% East Asian ancestry.” ref

“Lake Baikal Holocene – Baikal Eneolithic (Baikal_EN) and Baikal Early Bronze Age (Baikal_EBA) derived 6.4% to 20.1% ancestry from ANE, while rest of their ancestry was derived from East Asians. Fofonovo_EN near by Lake Baikal were mixture of 12-17% ANE ancestry and 83-87% East Asian ancestry.” ref

Hokkaido Jōmon people specifically refers to the Jōmon period population of Hokkaido in northernmost Japan. Though the Jōmon people themselves descended mainly from East Asian lineages, one study found an affinity between Hokkaido Jōmon with the Northern Eurasian Yana sample (an ANE-related group, related to Mal’ta), and suggest as an explanation the possibility of minor Yana gene flow into the Hokkaido Jōmon population (as well as other possibilities). A more recent study by Cooke et al. 2021, confirmed ANE-related geneflow among the Jōmon people, partially ancestral to the Ainu people. ANE ancestry among Jōmon people is estimated at 21%, however, there is a North to South cline within the Japanese archipelago, with the highest amount of ANE ancestry in Hokkaido and Tohoku.” ref

Haplogroup R possible time of origin about 27,000 years in Central Asia, South Asia, or Siberia:

Who were the Groups migrating and merging with the previous Groups of Europe 9,000 to 7,000 years ago?

Pic ref 

Ancient Human Genomes…Present-Day Europeans – Johannes Krause (Video)

Ancient North Eurasian (ANE)

Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG)

Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHG)

Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherer (SHG)

Early European Farmers (EEF)

A quick look at the Genetic history of Europe

“The most significant recent dispersal of modern humans from Africa gave rise to an undifferentiated “non-African” lineage by some 70,000-50,000 years ago. By about 50–40 ka a basal West Eurasian lineage had emerged, as had a separate East Asian lineage. Both basal East and West Eurasians acquired Neanderthal admixture in Europe and Asia. European early modern humans (EEMH) lineages between 40,000-26,000 years ago (Aurignacian) were still part of a large Western Eurasian “meta-population”, related to Central and Western Asian populations. Divergence into genetically distinct sub-populations within Western Eurasia is a result of increased selection pressure and founder effects during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, Gravettian). By the end of the LGM, after 20,000 years ago, A Western European lineage, dubbed West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) emerges from the Solutrean refugium during the European Mesolithic. These Mesolithic hunter-gatherer cultures are substantially replaced in the Neolithic Revolution by the arrival of Early European Farmers (EEF) lineages derived from Mesolithic populations of West Asia (Anatolia and the Caucasus). In the European Bronze Age, there were again substantial population replacements in parts of Europe by the intrusion of Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) lineages from the Pontic–Caspian steppes. These Bronze Age population replacements are associated with the Beaker culture archaeologically and with the Indo-European expansion linguistically.” ref 

“As a result of the population movements during the Mesolithic to Bronze Age, modern European populations are distinguished by differences in WHG, EEF, and ANE ancestry. Admixture rates varied geographically; in the late Neolithic, WHG ancestry in farmers in Hungary was at around 10%, in Germany around 25%, and in Iberia as high as 50%. The contribution of EEF is more significant in Mediterranean Europe, and declines towards northern and northeastern Europe, where WHG ancestry is stronger; the Sardinians are considered to be the closest European group to the population of the EEF. ANE ancestry is found throughout Europe, with a maximum of about 20% found in Baltic people and Finns. Ethnogenesis of the modern ethnic groups of Europe in the historical period is associated with numerous admixture events, primarily those associated with the RomanGermanicNorseSlavicBerberArab and Turkish expansions. Research into the genetic history of Europe became possible in the second half of the 20th century, but did not yield results with a high resolution before the 1990s. In the 1990s, preliminary results became possible, but they remained mostly limited to studies of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal lineages. Autosomal DNA became more easily accessible in the 2000s, and since the mid-2010s, results of previously unattainable resolution, many of them based on full-genome analysis of ancient DNA, have been published at an accelerated pace.” ref


Kurgan Hypothesis

“The Kurgan hypothesis (also known as the Kurgan theory or Kurgan model) or Steppe theory is the most widely accepted proposal to identify the Proto-Indo-European homeland from which the Indo-European languages spread out throughout Europe and parts of Asia. It postulates that the people of a Kurgan culture in the Pontic steppe north of the Black Sea were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). The term is derived from the Russian kurgan (курга́н), meaning tumulus or burial mound. The Steppe theory was first formulated by Otto Schrader (1883) and V. Gordon Childe (1926), then systematized in the 1950s by Marija Gimbutas, who used the term to group various prehistoric cultures, including the Yamnaya (or Pit Grave) culture and its predecessors. In the 2000s, David Anthony instead used the core Yamnaya culture and its relationship with other cultures as a point of reference.” ref

“Gimbutas defined the Kurgan culture as composed of four successive periods, with the earliest (Kurgan I) including the Samara and Seroglazovo cultures of the DnieperVolga region in the Copper Age (early 4th millennium BCE). The people of these cultures were nomadic pastoralists, who, according to the model, by the early 3rd millennium BCE had expanded throughout the Pontic–Caspian steppe and into Eastern Europe. Recent genetics studies have demonstrated that populations bearing specific Y-DNA haplogroups and a distinct genetic signature expanded into Europe and South Asia from the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the third and second millennia BCE. These migrations provide a plausible explanation for the spread of at least some of the Indo-European languages, and suggest that the alternative Anatolian hypothesis, which places the Proto-Indo-European homeland in Neolithic Anatolia, is less likely to be correct.” ref

“Cultures that Gimbutas considered as part of the “Kurgan culture”:


Dnieper–Donets culture

The Dnieper–Donets culture (ca. 5th—4th millennium BCE) was a Mesolithic and later Neolithic culture which flourished north of the Black Sea ca. 5000-4200 BCE. It has many parallels with the Samara culture, and was succeeded by the Sredny Stog cultureThere are parallels with the contemporaneous Samara culture to the north. Striking similarities with the Khvalynsk culture and the Sredny Stog culture have also been detected. A much larger horizon from the upper Vistula to the lower half of Dnieper to the mid-to-lower Volga has therefore been drawn. Influences from the Dnieper–Donets culture and the Sredny Stog culture on the Funnelbeaker culture have been detected. An origin of the Funnelbeaker culture from the Dnieper–Donets culture has been suggested, but this is very controversial. The Dnieper–Donets culture was contemporary with the Bug–Dniester culture. It is clearly distinct from the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture.” ref

“From around 5200 BCE, the Dnieper-Donets people began keeping cattle, sheep, and goats. Other domestic animals kept included pigs, horses, and dogs. During the following centuries, domestic animals from the Dnieper further and further east towards the VolgaUral steppes, where they appeared ca. 4700-4600 BCE. From about 4200 BCE, the Dnieper–Donets culture adopted agriculture. Domestic plants that have been recovered include millet, wheat, and pea. Evidence from skeletal remains suggest that plants were consumed. The presence of exotic goods in Dnieper-Donets graves indicates exchange relationships with the Caucasus. In later times the deceased in the Dnieper–Donets culture were sometimes buried individually. This shift has been suggested as evidence of a shift towards increasing individualism. Dnieper–Donets burials have been found near the settlement of Deriivka, which is associated with the Sredny Stog culture.” ref

“Certain Dnieper-Donets burials are accompanied with copper, crystal or porphyry ornaments, shell beads, bird-stone tubes, polished stone maces or ornamental plaques made of boar’s tusk. The items, along with the presence of animal bones and sophisticated burial methods, appear to have been a symbol of power. Certain deceased children were buried with such items, which indicates that wealth was inherited in Dnieper-Donets society. Very similar boar-tusk plaques and copper ornament have been found at contemporary graves of the Samara culture in the middle Volga area. Maces of a different type than those of Dnieper-Donets have also been found. The wide adoption of such a status symbol attests to a change in the politics of power. The physical remains recovered from graves of the Dnieper–Donets culture have been classified as “Proto-Europoid“, with large and more massive features than the gracile Mediterranean peoples of the Balkan Neolithic. Males averaged 172 cm in height, which is much taller than contemporary Neolithic populations. Its rugged physical traits are thought to have genetically influenced later Indo-European peoples.” ref

“Dnieper-Donets pottery was initially pointed-based, but in later phases flat-based wares emerge. Their pottery is completely different from those made by the nearby Cucuteni–Trypillia culture. The importance of pottery appears to have increased throughout the existence of the Dnieper–Donets culture, which implies a more sedentary lifestyle. The early use of typical point base pottery interrelates with other Mesolithic cultures that are peripheral to the expanse of the Neolithic farmer cultures. The special shape of this pottery has been related to transport by logboat in wetland areas. Especially related are Swifterbant in the Netherlands, Ellerbek and Ertebølle in Northern Germany and Scandinavia, “Ceramic Mesolithic” pottery of Belgium and Northern France (including non-Linear pottery such as La Hoguette, Bliquy, Villeneuve-Saint-Germain), the Roucadour culture in Southwest France and the river and lake areas of Northern Poland and Russia.” ref

“In accordance with the Kurgan hypothesis, J. Mallory (1997) suggested that the Dnieper-Donets people were Pre–Indo-European-speakers who were absorbed by Proto-Indo-Europeans expanding westwards from steppe-lands further east. David Anthony (2007) believes that the Dnieper-Donets people almost certainly spoke a different language from the people of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture. The areas of the upper Dniester in which the Dnieper–Donets culture was situated have mostly Baltic river names. That and the close relationship between the Dnieper–Donets culture and contemporary cultures of northeast Europe have caused the Dnieper–Donets culture to be identified with the later Balts. The precise role of the culture and its language to the derivation of the Pontic-Caspian cultures, such as Sredny Stog and Yamnaya culture, is open to debate, but the display of recurrent traits points to longstanding mutual contacts or to underlying genetic relations.” ref


Research Shows Indo-European Languages Originated in Turkey (2012)

“The Indo-European languages belong to one of the widest spread language families of the world. For the last two millennia, many of these languages have been written, and their history is relatively clear. But controversy remains about the time and place of the origins of the family. The majority view in historical linguistics is that the homeland of Indo-European is located in the Pontic steppes – present-day Ukraine – around 6,000 years ago. The evidence for this comes from linguistic paleontology: in particular, certain words to do with the technology of wheeled vehicles are arguably present across all the branches of the Indo-European family; and archaeology tells us that wheeled vehicles arose no earlier than this date. The minority view links the origins of Indo-European with the spread of farming from Anatolia 8,000-9,500 years ago. The team’s innovative Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of Indo-European linguistic and spatial data, including basic vocabulary data from 103 ancient and contemporary Indo-European languages, decisively supports this theory. The linguists report their results in a paper in the journal Science.” ref

“Asian varieties of millet made their way from China to the Black Sea region of Europe by 5000 BCE or 7,000 years ago.”

Origins of ‘Transeurasian’ languages traced to Neolithic millet farmers in north-eastern China about 9,000 years ago

“A study combining linguistic, genetic, and archaeological evidence has traced the origins of a family of languages including modern Japanese, Korean, Turkish and Mongolian and the people who speak them to millet farmers who inhabited a region in north-eastern China about 9,000 years ago. The findings outlined on Wednesday document a shared genetic ancestry for the hundreds of millions of people who speak what the researchers call Transeurasian languages across an area stretching more than 5,000 miles (8,000km).” ref

“Millet was an important early crop as hunter-gatherers transitioned to an agricultural lifestyle. There are 98 Transeurasian languages, including Korean, Japanese, and various Turkic languages in parts of Europe, Anatolia, Central Asia, and Siberia, various Mongolic languages, and various Tungusic languages in Manchuria and Siberia. This language family’s beginnings were traced to Neolithic millet farmers in the Liao River valley, an area encompassing parts of the Chinese provinces of Liaoning and Jilin and the region of Inner Mongolia. As these farmers moved across north-eastern Asia over thousands of years, the descendant languages spread north and west into Siberia and the steppes and east into the Korean peninsula and over the sea to the Japanese archipelago.” ref


“Eurasiatic is a proposed language with many language families historically spoken in northern, western, and southern Eurasia; which typically include Altaic (Mongolic, Tungusic, and Turkic), Chukchi-Kamchatkan, Eskimo–Aleut, Indo-European, and Uralic.” ref

“Voiced stops such as /d/ occur in the Indo-European, Yeniseian, Turkic, Mongolian, Tungusic, Japonic and Sino-Tibetan languages. They have also later arisen in several branches of Uralic.” ref

“Uralo-Siberian is a hypothetical language family of Uralic, Yukaghir, Eskimo–Aleut and besides linguistic evidence, several genetic studies, support a common origin in Northeast Asia.” ref


“Altaic (also called Transeurasian) is a proposed language family that would include the TurkicMongolic, and Tungusic language families and possibly also the Japonic and Koreanic languages.  Speakers of these languages are currently scattered over most of Asia north of 35 °N and in some eastern parts of Europe, extending in longitude from Turkey to Japan. The group is named after the Altai mountain range in the center of Asia.” ref


Tracing population movements in ancient East Asia through the linguistics and archaeology of textile production – 2020


“Archaeolinguistics, a field which combines language reconstruction and archaeology as a source of information on human prehistory, has much to offer to deepen our understanding of the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Northeast Asia. So far, integrated comparative analyses of words and tools for textile production are completely lacking for the Northeast Asian Neolithic and Bronze Age. To remedy this situation, here we integrate linguistic and archaeological evidence of textile production, with the aim of shedding light on ancient population movements in Northeast China, the Russian Far East, Korea, and Japan. We show that the transition to more sophisticated textile technology in these regions can be associated not only with the adoption of millet agriculture but also with the spread of the languages of the so-called ‘Transeurasian’ family. In this way, our research provides indirect support for the Language/Farming Dispersal Hypothesis, which posits that language expansion from the Neolithic onwards was often associated with agricultural colonization.” ref

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art


By day the LORD went ahead of them in a pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night.

  • By day the “Bible God” was in a cloud pillar.
  • By night the “Bible God” was in a fire pillar.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art


Animism: Respecting the Living World by Graham Harvey 

“How have human cultures engaged with and thought about animals, plants, rocks, clouds, and other elements in their natural surroundings? Do animals and other natural objects have a spirit or soul? What is their relationship to humans? In this new study, Graham Harvey explores current and past animistic beliefs and practices of Native Americans, Maori, Aboriginal Australians, and eco-pagans. He considers the varieties of animism found in these cultures as well as their shared desire to live respectfully within larger natural communities. Drawing on his extensive casework, Harvey also considers the linguistic, performative, ecological, and activist implications of these different animisms.” ref

My thoughts on Religion Evolution with external links for more info:

“Religion is an Evolved Product” and Yes, Religion is Like Fear Given Wings…

Atheists talk about gods and religions for the same reason doctors talk about cancer, they are looking for a cure, or a firefighter talks about fires because they burn people and they care to stop them. We atheists too often feel a need to help the victims of mental slavery, held in the bondage that is the false beliefs of gods and the conspiracy theories of reality found in religions.

“Understanding Religion Evolution: Animism, Totemism, Shamanism, Paganism & Progressed organized religion”

Understanding Religion Evolution:

“An Archaeological/Anthropological Understanding of Religion Evolution”

It seems ancient peoples had to survived amazing threats in a “dangerous universe (by superstition perceived as good and evil),” and human “immorality or imperfection of the soul” which was thought to affect the still living, leading to ancestor worship. This ancestor worship presumably led to the belief in supernatural beings, and then some of these were turned into the belief in gods. This feeble myth called gods were just a human conceived “made from nothing into something over and over, changing, again and again, taking on more as they evolve, all the while they are thought to be special,” but it is just supernatural animistic spirit-belief perceived as sacred.


Quick Evolution of Religion?

Pre-Animism (at least 300,000 years ago) pre-religion is a beginning that evolves into later Animism. So, Religion as we think of it, to me, all starts in a general way with Animism (Africa: 100,000 years ago) (theoretical belief in supernatural powers/spirits), then this is physically expressed in or with Totemism (Europe: 50,000 years ago) (theoretical belief in mythical relationship with powers/spirits through a totem item), which then enlists a full-time specific person to do this worship and believed interacting Shamanism (Siberia/Russia: 30,000 years ago) (theoretical belief in access and influence with spirits through ritual), and then there is the further employment of myths and gods added to all the above giving you Paganism (Turkey: 12,000 years ago) (often a lot more nature-based than most current top world religions, thus hinting to their close link to more ancient religious thinking it stems from). My hypothesis is expressed with an explanation of the building of a theatrical house (modern religions development). Progressed organized religion (Egypt: 5,000 years ago)  with CURRENT “World” RELIGIONS (after 4,000 years ago).

Historically, in large city-state societies (such as Egypt or Iraq) starting around 5,000 years ago culminated to make religion something kind of new, a sociocultural-governmental-religious monarchy, where all or at least many of the people of such large city-state societies seem familiar with and committed to the existence of “religion” as the integrated life identity package of control dynamics with a fixed closed magical doctrine, but this juggernaut integrated religion identity package of Dogmatic-Propaganda certainly did not exist or if developed to an extent it was highly limited in most smaller prehistoric societies as they seem to lack most of the strong control dynamics with a fixed closed magical doctrine (magical beliefs could be at times be added or removed). Many people just want to see developed religious dynamics everywhere even if it is not. Instead, all that is found is largely fragments until the domestication of religion.

Religions, as we think of them today, are a new fad, even if they go back to around 6,000 years in the timeline of human existence, this amounts to almost nothing when seen in the long slow evolution of religion at least around 70,000 years ago with one of the oldest ritual worship. Stone Snake of South Africa: “first human worship” 70,000 years ago. This message of how religion and gods among them are clearly a man-made thing that was developed slowly as it was invented and then implemented peace by peace discrediting them all. Which seems to be a simple point some are just not grasping how devastating to any claims of truth when we can see the lie clearly in the archeological sites.

I wish people fought as hard for the actual values as they fight for the group/clan names political or otherwise they think support values. Every amount spent on war is theft to children in need of food or the homeless kept from shelter.

Here are several of my blog posts on history:

I am not an academic. I am a revolutionary that teaches in public, in places like social media, and in the streets. I am not a leader by some title given but from my commanding leadership style of simply to start teaching everywhere to everyone, all manner of positive education. 

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

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Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

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Low Gods “Earth” or Tutelary deity and High Gods “Sky” or Supreme deity

“An Earth goddess is a deification of the Earth. Earth goddesses are often associated with the “chthonic” deities of the underworldKi and Ninhursag are Mesopotamian earth goddesses. In Greek mythology, the Earth is personified as Gaia, corresponding to Roman Terra, Indic Prithvi/Bhūmi, etc. traced to an “Earth Mother” complementary to the “Sky Father” in Proto-Indo-European religionEgyptian mythology exceptionally has a sky goddess and an Earth god.” ref

“A mother goddess is a goddess who represents or is a personification of naturemotherhoodfertilitycreationdestruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth. When equated with the Earth or the natural world, such goddesses are sometimes referred to as Mother Earth or as the Earth Mother. In some religious traditions or movements, Heavenly Mother (also referred to as Mother in Heaven or Sky Mother) is the wife or feminine counterpart of the Sky father or God the Father.” ref

Any masculine sky god is often also king of the gods, taking the position of patriarch within a pantheon. Such king gods are collectively categorized as “sky father” deities, with a polarity between sky and earth often being expressed by pairing a “sky father” god with an “earth mother” goddess (pairings of a sky mother with an earth father are less frequent). A main sky goddess is often the queen of the gods and may be an air/sky goddess in her own right, though she usually has other functions as well with “sky” not being her main. In antiquity, several sky goddesses in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Near East were called Queen of Heaven. Neopagans often apply it with impunity to sky goddesses from other regions who were never associated with the term historically. The sky often has important religious significance. Many religions, both polytheistic and monotheistic, have deities associated with the sky.” ref

“In comparative mythology, sky father is a term for a recurring concept in polytheistic religions of a sky god who is addressed as a “father”, often the father of a pantheon and is often either a reigning or former King of the Gods. The concept of “sky father” may also be taken to include Sun gods with similar characteristics, such as Ra. The concept is complementary to an “earth mother“. “Sky Father” is a direct translation of the Vedic Dyaus Pita, etymologically descended from the same Proto-Indo-European deity name as the Greek Zeûs Pater and Roman Jupiter and Germanic Týr, Tir or Tiwaz, all of which are reflexes of the same Proto-Indo-European deity’s name, *Dyēus Ph₂tḗr. While there are numerous parallels adduced from outside of Indo-European mythology, there are exceptions (e.g. In Egyptian mythology, Nut is the sky mother and Geb is the earth father).” ref

Tutelary deity

“A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation. The etymology of “tutelary” expresses the concept of safety and thus of guardianship. In late Greek and Roman religion, one type of tutelary deity, the genius, functions as the personal deity or daimon of an individual from birth to death. Another form of personal tutelary spirit is the familiar spirit of European folklore.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) iKorean shamanismjangseung and sotdae were placed at the edge of villages to frighten off demons. They were also worshiped as deities. Seonangshin is the patron deity of the village in Korean tradition and was believed to embody the SeonangdangIn Philippine animism, Diwata or Lambana are deities or spirits that inhabit sacred places like mountains and mounds and serve as guardians. Such as: Maria Makiling is the deity who guards Mt. Makiling and Maria Cacao and Maria Sinukuan. In Shinto, the spirits, or kami, which give life to human bodies come from nature and return to it after death. Ancestors are therefore themselves tutelaries to be worshiped. And similarly, Native American beliefs such as Tonás, tutelary animal spirit among the Zapotec and Totems, familial or clan spirits among the Ojibwe, can be animals.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) in Austronesian beliefs such as: Atua (gods and spirits of the Polynesian peoples such as the Māori or the Hawaiians), Hanitu (Bunun of Taiwan‘s term for spirit), Hyang (KawiSundaneseJavanese, and Balinese Supreme Being, in ancient Java and Bali mythology and this spiritual entity, can be either divine or ancestral), Kaitiaki (New Zealand Māori term used for the concept of guardianship, for the sky, the sea, and the land), Kawas (mythology) (divided into 6 groups: gods, ancestors, souls of the living, spirits of living things, spirits of lifeless objects, and ghosts), Tiki (Māori mythologyTiki is the first man created by either Tūmatauenga or Tāne and represents deified ancestors found in most Polynesian cultures). ” ref, ref, ref, ref, ref, ref, ref

Mesopotamian Tutelary Deities can be seen as ones related to City-States 

“Historical city-states included Sumerian cities such as Uruk and UrAncient Egyptian city-states, such as Thebes and Memphis; the Phoenician cities (such as Tyre and Sidon); the five Philistine city-states; the Berber city-states of the Garamantes; the city-states of ancient Greece (the poleis such as AthensSpartaThebes, and Corinth); the Roman Republic (which grew from a city-state into a vast empire); the Italian city-states from the Middle Ages to the early modern period, such as FlorenceSienaFerraraMilan (which as they grew in power began to dominate neighboring cities) and Genoa and Venice, which became powerful thalassocracies; the Mayan and other cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica (including cities such as Chichen ItzaTikalCopán and Monte Albán); the central Asian cities along the Silk Road; the city-states of the Swahili coastRagusa; states of the medieval Russian lands such as Novgorod and Pskov; and many others.” ref

“The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BCE; also known as Protoliterate period) of Mesopotamia, named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia and the Sumerian civilization. City-States like Uruk and others had a patron tutelary City Deity along with a Priest-King.” ref

Chinese folk religion, both past, and present, includes myriad tutelary deities. Exceptional individuals, highly cultivated sages, and prominent ancestors can be deified and honored after death. Lord Guan is the patron of military personnel and police, while Mazu is the patron of fishermen and sailors. Such as Tu Di Gong (Earth Deity) is the tutelary deity of a locality, and each individual locality has its own Earth Deity and Cheng Huang Gong (City God) is the guardian deity of an individual city, worshipped by local officials and locals since imperial times.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) in Hinduism, personal tutelary deities are known as ishta-devata, while family tutelary deities are known as Kuladevata. Gramadevata are guardian deities of villages. Devas can also be seen as tutelary. Shiva is the patron of yogis and renunciants. City goddesses include: Mumbadevi (Mumbai), Sachchika (Osian); Kuladevis include: Ambika (Porwad), and Mahalakshmi. In NorthEast India Meitei mythology and religion (Sanamahism) of Manipur, there are various types of tutelary deities, among which Lam Lais are the most predominant ones. Tibetan Buddhism has Yidam as a tutelary deity. Dakini is the patron of those who seek knowledge.” ref

“A tutelary (also tutelar) The Greeks also thought deities guarded specific places: for instance, Athena was the patron goddess of the city of Athens. Socrates spoke of hearing the voice of his personal spirit or daimonion:

You have often heard me speak of an oracle or sign which comes to me … . This sign I have had ever since I was a child. The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything, and this is what stands in the way of my being a politician.” ref

“Tutelary deities who guard and preserve a place or a person are fundamental to ancient Roman religion. The tutelary deity of a man was his Genius, that of a woman her Juno. In the Imperial era, the Genius of the Emperor was a focus of Imperial cult. An emperor might also adopt a major deity as his personal patron or tutelary, as Augustus did Apollo. Precedents for claiming the personal protection of a deity were established in the Republican era, when for instance the Roman dictator Sulla advertised the goddess Victory as his tutelary by holding public games (ludi) in her honor.” ref

“Each town or city had one or more tutelary deities, whose protection was considered particularly vital in time of war and siege. Rome itself was protected by a goddess whose name was to be kept ritually secret on pain of death (for a supposed case, see Quintus Valerius Soranus). The Capitoline Triad of Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva were also tutelaries of Rome. The Italic towns had their own tutelary deities. Juno often had this function, as at the Latin town of Lanuvium and the Etruscan city of Veii, and was often housed in an especially grand temple on the arx (citadel) or other prominent or central location. The tutelary deity of Praeneste was Fortuna, whose oracle was renowned.” ref

“The Roman ritual of evocatio was premised on the belief that a town could be made vulnerable to military defeat if the power of its tutelary deity were diverted outside the city, perhaps by the offer of superior cult at Rome. The depiction of some goddesses such as the Magna Mater (Great Mother, or Cybele) as “tower-crowned” represents their capacity to preserve the city. A town in the provinces might adopt a deity from within the Roman religious sphere to serve as its guardian, or syncretize its own tutelary with such; for instance, a community within the civitas of the Remi in Gaul adopted Apollo as its tutelary, and at the capital of the Remi (present-day Rheims), the tutelary was Mars Camulus.” ref 

Household deity (a kind of or related to a Tutelary deity)

“A household deity is a deity or spirit that protects the home, looking after the entire household or certain key members. It has been a common belief in paganism as well as in folklore across many parts of the world. Household deities fit into two types; firstly, a specific deity – typically a goddess – often referred to as a hearth goddess or domestic goddess who is associated with the home and hearth, such as the ancient Greek Hestia.” ref

“The second type of household deities are those that are not one singular deity, but a type, or species of animistic deity, who usually have lesser powers than major deities. This type was common in the religions of antiquity, such as the Lares of ancient Roman religion, the Gashin of Korean shamanism, and Cofgodas of Anglo-Saxon paganism. These survived Christianisation as fairy-like creatures existing in folklore, such as the Anglo-Scottish Brownie and Slavic Domovoy.” ref

“Household deities were usually worshipped not in temples but in the home, where they would be represented by small idols (such as the teraphim of the Bible, often translated as “household gods” in Genesis 31:19 for example), amulets, paintings, or reliefs. They could also be found on domestic objects, such as cosmetic articles in the case of Tawaret. The more prosperous houses might have a small shrine to the household god(s); the lararium served this purpose in the case of the Romans. The gods would be treated as members of the family and invited to join in meals, or be given offerings of food and drink.” ref

“In many religions, both ancient and modern, a god would preside over the home. Certain species, or types, of household deities, existed. An example of this was the Roman Lares. Many European cultures retained house spirits into the modern period. Some examples of these include:

“Although the cosmic status of household deities was not as lofty as that of the Twelve Olympians or the Aesir, they were also jealous of their dignity and also had to be appeased with shrines and offerings, however humble. Because of their immediacy they had arguably more influence on the day-to-day affairs of men than the remote gods did. Vestiges of their worship persisted long after Christianity and other major religions extirpated nearly every trace of the major pagan pantheons. Elements of the practice can be seen even today, with Christian accretions, where statues to various saints (such as St. Francis) protect gardens and grottos. Even the gargoyles found on older churches, could be viewed as guardians partitioning a sacred space.” ref

“For centuries, Christianity fought a mop-up war against these lingering minor pagan deities, but they proved tenacious. For example, Martin Luther‘s Tischreden have numerous – quite serious – references to dealing with kobolds. Eventually, rationalism and the Industrial Revolution threatened to erase most of these minor deities, until the advent of romantic nationalism rehabilitated them and embellished them into objects of literary curiosity in the 19th century. Since the 20th century this literature has been mined for characters for role-playing games, video games, and other fantasy personae, not infrequently invested with invented traits and hierarchies somewhat different from their mythological and folkloric roots.” ref

“In contradistinction to both Herbert Spencer and Edward Burnett Tylor, who defended theories of animistic origins of ancestor worship, Émile Durkheim saw its origin in totemism. In reality, this distinction is somewhat academic, since totemism may be regarded as a particularized manifestation of animism, and something of a synthesis of the two positions was attempted by Sigmund Freud. In Freud’s Totem and Taboo, both totem and taboo are outward expressions or manifestations of the same psychological tendency, a concept which is complementary to, or which rather reconciles, the apparent conflict. Freud preferred to emphasize the psychoanalytic implications of the reification of metaphysical forces, but with particular emphasis on its familial nature. This emphasis underscores, rather than weakens, the ancestral component.” ref

William Edward Hearn, a noted classicist, and jurist, traced the origin of domestic deities from the earliest stages as an expression of animism, a belief system thought to have existed also in the neolithic, and the forerunner of Indo-European religion. In his analysis of the Indo-European household, in Chapter II “The House Spirit”, Section 1, he states:

The belief which guided the conduct of our forefathers was … the spirit rule of dead ancestors.” ref

“In Section 2 he proceeds to elaborate:

It is thus certain that the worship of deceased ancestors is a vera causa, and not a mere hypothesis. …

In the other European nations, the Slavs, the Teutons, and the Kelts, the House Spirit appears with no less distinctness. … [T]he existence of that worship does not admit of doubt. … The House Spirits had a multitude of other names which it is needless here to enumerate, but all of which are more or less expressive of their friendly relations with man. … In [England] … [h]e is the Brownie. … In Scotland this same Brownie is well known. He is usually described as attached to particular families, with whom he has been known to reside for centuries, threshing the corn, cleaning the house, and performing similar household tasks. His favorite gratification was milk and honey.” ref

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

ref, ref

Hinduism around 3,700 to 3,500 years old. ref

 Judaism around 3,450 or 3,250 years old. (The first writing in the bible was “Paleo-Hebrew” dated to around 3,000 years ago Khirbet Qeiyafa is the site of an ancient fortress city overlooking the Elah Valley. And many believe the religious Jewish texts were completed around 2,500) ref, ref

Judaism is around 3,450 or 3,250 years old. (“Paleo-Hebrew” 3,000 years ago and Torah 2,500 years ago)

“Judaism is an Abrahamic, its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Some scholars argue that modern Judaism evolved from Yahwism, the religion of ancient Israel and Judah, by the late 6th century BCE, and is thus considered to be one of the oldest monotheistic religions.” ref

“Yahwism is the name given by modern scholars to the religion of ancient Israel, essentially polytheistic, with a plethora of gods and goddesses. Heading the pantheon was Yahweh, the national god of the Israelite kingdoms of Israel and Judah, with his consort, the goddess Asherah; below them were second-tier gods and goddesses such as Baal, Shamash, Yarikh, Mot, and Astarte, all of whom had their own priests and prophets and numbered royalty among their devotees, and a third and fourth tier of minor divine beings, including the mal’ak, the messengers of the higher gods, who in later times became the angels of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Yahweh, however, was not the ‘original’ god of Israel “Isra-El”; it is El, the head of the Canaanite pantheon, whose name forms the basis of the name “Israel”, and none of the Old Testament patriarchs, the tribes of Israel, the Judges, or the earliest monarchs, have a Yahwistic theophoric name (i.e., one incorporating the name of Yahweh).” ref

“El is a Northwest Semitic word meaning “god” or “deity“, or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major ancient Near Eastern deities. A rarer form, ‘ila, represents the predicate form in Old Akkadian and in Amorite. The word is derived from the Proto-Semitic *ʔil-, meaning “god”. Specific deities known as ‘El or ‘Il include the supreme god of the ancient Canaanite religion and the supreme god of East Semitic speakers in Mesopotamia’s Early Dynastic Period. ʼĒl is listed at the head of many pantheons. In some Canaanite and Ugaritic sources, ʼĒl played a role as father of the gods, of creation, or both. For example, in the Ugaritic texts, ʾil mlk is understood to mean “ʼĒl the King” but ʾil hd as “the god Hadad“. The Semitic root ʾlh (Arabic ʾilāh, Aramaic ʾAlāh, ʾElāh, Hebrew ʾelōah) may be ʾl with a parasitic h, and ʾl may be an abbreviated form of ʾlh. In Ugaritic the plural form meaning “gods” is ʾilhm, equivalent to Hebrew ʾelōhîm “powers”. In the Hebrew texts this word is interpreted as being semantically singular for “god” by biblical commentators. However the documentary hypothesis for the Old Testament (corresponds to the Jewish Torah) developed originally in the 1870s, identifies these that different authors – the Jahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomist, and the Priestly source – were responsible for editing stories from a polytheistic religion into those of a monotheistic religion. Inconsistencies that arise between monotheism and polytheism in the texts are reflective of this hypothesis.” ref


Jainism around 2,599 – 2,527 years old. ref

Confucianism around 2,600 – 2,551 years old. ref

Buddhism around 2,563/2,480 – 2,483/2,400 years old. ref

Christianity around 2,o00 years old. ref

Shinto around 1,305 years old. ref

Islam around 1407–1385 years old. ref

Sikhism around 548–478 years old. ref

Bahá’í around 200–125 years old. ref

Knowledge to Ponder: 


  • Possibly, around 30,000 years ago (in simpler form) to 6,000 years ago, Stars/Astrology are connected to Ancestors, Spirit Animals, and Deities.
  • The star also seems to be a possible proto-star for Star of Ishtar, Star of Inanna, or Star of Venus.
  • Around 7,000 to 6,000 years ago, Star Constellations/Astrology have connections to the “Kurgan phenomenon” of below-ground “mound” stone/wood burial structures and “Dolmen phenomenon” of above-ground stone burial structures.
  • Around 6,500–5,800 years ago, The Northern Levant migrations into Jordon and Israel in the Southern Levant brought new cultural and religious transfer from Turkey and Iran.
  • “The Ghassulian Star,” a mysterious 6,000-year-old mural from Jordan may have connections to the European paganstic kurgan/dolmens phenomenon.

“Astrology is a range of divinatory practices, recognized as pseudoscientific since the 18th century, that claim to discern information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the apparent positions of celestial objects. Different cultures have employed forms of astrology since at least the 2nd millennium BCE, these practices having originated in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. Most, if not all, cultures have attached importance to what they observed in the sky, and some—such as the HindusChinese, and the Maya—developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Western astrology, one of the oldest astrological systems still in use, can trace its roots to 19th–17th century BCE Mesopotamia, from where it spread to Ancient GreeceRome, the Islamicate world and eventually Central and Western Europe. Contemporary Western astrology is often associated with systems of horoscopes that purport to explain aspects of a person’s personality and predict significant events in their lives based on the positions of celestial objects; the majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems.” ref 

Around 5,500 years ago, Science evolves, The first evidence of science was 5,500 years ago and was demonstrated by a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world. ref

Around 5,000 years ago, Origin of Logics is a Naturalistic Observation (principles of valid reasoning, inference, & demonstration) ref

Around 4,150 to 4,000 years ago: The earliest surviving versions of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, which was originally titled “He who Saw the Deep” (Sha naqba īmuru) or “Surpassing All Other Kings” (Shūtur eli sharrī) were written. ref


  • 3,700 years ago or so, the oldest of the Hindu Vedas (scriptures), the Rig Veda was composed.
  • 3,500 years ago or so, the Vedic Age began in India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization.


  • around 3,000 years ago, the first writing in the bible was “Paleo-Hebrew”
  • around 2,500 years ago, many believe the religious Jewish texts were completed

Myths: The bible inspired religion is not just one religion or one myth but a grouping of several religions and myths

  • Around 3,450 or 3,250 years ago, according to legend, is the traditionally accepted period in which the Israelite lawgiver, Moses, provided the Ten Commandments.
  • Around 2,500 to 2,400 years ago, a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh, or Old Testament is the first part of Christianity’s bible.
  • Around 2,400 years ago, the most accepted hypothesis is that the canon was formed in stages, first the Pentateuch (Torah).
  • Around 2,140 to 2,116 years ago, the Prophets was written during the Hasmonean dynasty, and finally the remaining books.
  • Christians traditionally divide the Old Testament into four sections:
  • The first five books or Pentateuch (Torah).
  • The proposed history books telling the history of the Israelites from their conquest of Canaan to their defeat and exile in Babylon.
  • The poetic and proposed “Wisdom books” dealing, in various forms, with questions of good and evil in the world.
  • The books of the biblical prophets, warning of the consequences of turning away from God:
  • Henotheism:
  • Exodus 20:23 “You shall not make other gods besides Me (not saying there are no other gods just not to worship them); gods of silver or gods of gold, you shall not make for yourselves.”
  • Polytheism:
  • Judges 10:6 “Then the sons of Israel again did evil in the sight of the LORD, served the Baals and the Ashtaroth, the gods of Aram, the gods of Sidon, the gods of Moab, the gods of the sons of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines; thus they forsook the LORD and did not serve Him.”
  • 1 Corinthians 8:5 “For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords.”
  • Monotheism:
  • Isaiah 43:10 “You are my witnesses,” declares the LORD, “and my servant whom I have chosen, so that you may know and believe me and understand that I am he. Before me no god was formed, nor will there be one after me.

Around 2,570 to 2,270 Years Ago, there is a confirmation of atheistic doubting as well as atheistic thinking, mainly by Greek philosophers. However, doubting gods is likely as old as the invention of gods and should destroy the thinking that belief in god(s) is the “default belief”. The Greek word is apistos (a “not” and pistos “faithful,”), thus not faithful or faithless because one is unpersuaded and unconvinced by a god(s) claim. Short Definition: unbelieving, unbeliever, or unbelief.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

Expressions of Atheistic Thinking:

  • Around 2,600 years ago, Ajita Kesakambali, ancient Indian philosopher, who is the first known proponent of Indian materialism. ref
  • Around 2,535 to 2,475 years ago, Heraclitus, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Ionia, on the coast of Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor or modern Turkey. ref
  • Around 2,500 to 2,400 years ago, according to The Story of Civilization book series certain African pygmy tribes have no identifiable gods, spirits, or religious beliefs or rituals, and even what burials accrue are without ceremony. ref
  • Around 2,490 to 2,430 years ago, Empedocles, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily. ref
  • Around 2,460 to 2,370 years ago, Democritus, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher considered to be the “father of modern science” possibly had some disbelief amounting to atheism. ref
  • Around 2,399 years ago or so, Socrates, a famous Greek philosopher was tried for sinfulness by teaching doubt of state gods. ref
  • Around 2,341 to 2,270 years ago, Epicurus, a Greek philosopher known for composing atheistic critics and famously stated, “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him god?” ref

This last expression by Epicurus, seems to be an expression of Axiological Atheism. To understand and utilize value or actually possess “Value Conscious/Consciousness” to both give a strong moral “axiological” argument (the problem of evil) as well as use it to fortify humanism and positive ethical persuasion of human helping and care responsibilities. Because value-blindness gives rise to sociopathic/psychopathic evil.

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

While hallucinogens are associated with shamanism, it is alcohol that is associated with paganism.

The Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries Shows in the prehistory series:

Show one: Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses.

Show two: Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show tree: Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show four: Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show five: Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”

Show six: Emergence of hierarchy, sexism, slavery, and the new male god dominance: Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves!

Show seven: Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State)

Show eight: Paganism 4,000 years old: Moralistic gods after the rise of Statism and often support Statism/Kings: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism)

Prehistory: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” the division of labor, power, rights, and recourses: VIDEO

Pre-animism 300,000 years old and animism 100,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Totemism 50,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Shamanism 30,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism”: VIDEO

Paganism 12,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Pre-Capitalism): VIDEO

Paganism 7,000-5,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Capitalism) (World War 0) Elite and their slaves: VIEDO

Paganism 5,000 years old: progressed organized religion and the state: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (Kings and the Rise of the State): VIEDO

Paganism 4,000 years old: related to “Anarchism and Socialism” (First Moralistic gods, then the Origin time of Monotheism): VIEDO

I do not hate simply because I challenge and expose myths or lies any more than others being thought of as loving simply because of the protection and hiding from challenge their favored myths or lies.

The truth is best championed in the sunlight of challenge.

An archaeologist once said to me “Damien religion and culture are very different”

My response, So are you saying that was always that way, such as would you say Native Americans’ cultures are separate from their religions? And do you think it always was the way you believe?

I had said that religion was a cultural product. That is still how I see it and there are other archaeologists that think close to me as well. Gods too are the myths of cultures that did not understand science or the world around them, seeing magic/supernatural everywhere.

I personally think there is a goddess and not enough evidence to support a male god at Çatalhöyük but if there was both a male and female god and goddess then I know the kind of gods they were like Proto-Indo-European mythology.

This series idea was addressed in, Anarchist Teaching as Free Public Education or Free Education in the Public: VIDEO

Our 12 video series: Organized Oppression: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of power (9,000-4,000 years ago), is adapted from: The Complete and Concise History of the Sumerians and Early Bronze Age Mesopotamia (7000-2000 BC): by “History with Cy

Show #1: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Samarra, Halaf, Ubaid)

Show #2: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Eridu: First City of Power)

Show #3: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Uruk and the First Cities)

Show #4: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (First Kings)

Show #5: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Early Dynastic Period)

Show #6: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (King Lugalzagesi and the First Empire)

Show #7: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Sargon and Akkadian Rule)

Show #8: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Naram-Sin, Post-Akkadian Rule, and the Gutians)

Show #9: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Gudea of Lagash and Utu-hegal)

Show #10: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Third Dynasty of Ur / Neo-Sumerian Empire)

Show #11: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Amorites, Elamites, and the End of an Era)

Show #12: Mesopotamian State Force and the Politics of Power (Aftermath and Legacy of Sumer)

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

The “Atheist-Humanist-Leftist Revolutionaries”

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ Atheist Leftist @Skepticallefty & I (Damien Marie AtHope) @AthopeMarie (my YouTube & related blog) are working jointly in atheist, antitheist, antireligionist, antifascist, anarchist, socialist, and humanist endeavors in our videos together, generally, every other Saturday.

Why Does Power Bring Responsibility?

Think, how often is it the powerless that start wars, oppress others, or commit genocide? So, I guess the question is to us all, to ask, how can power not carry responsibility in a humanity concept? I know I see the deep ethical responsibility that if there is power their must be a humanistic responsibility of ethical and empathic stewardship of that power. Will I be brave enough to be kind? Will I possess enough courage to be compassionate? Will my valor reach its height of empathy? I as everyone, earns our justified respect by our actions, that are good, ethical, just, protecting, and kind. Do I have enough self-respect to put my love for humanity’s flushing, over being brought down by some of its bad actors? May we all be the ones doing good actions in the world, to help human flourishing.

I create the world I want to live in, striving for flourishing. Which is not a place but a positive potential involvement and promotion; a life of humanist goal precision. To master oneself, also means mastering positive prosocial behaviors needed for human flourishing. I may have lost a god myth as an atheist, but I am happy to tell you, my friend, it is exactly because of that, leaving the mental terrorizer, god belief, that I truly regained my connected ethical as well as kind humanity.

Cory and I will talk about prehistory and theism, addressing the relevance to atheism, anarchism, and socialism.

At the same time as the rise of the male god, 7,000 years ago, there was also the very time there was the rise of violence, war, and clans to kingdoms, then empires, then states. It is all connected back to 7,000 years ago, and it moved across the world.

Cory Johnston:  

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist (YouTube)

Cory Johnston: Mind of a Skeptical Leftist @Skepticallefty

The Mind of a Skeptical Leftist By Cory Johnston: “Promoting critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics by covering current events and talking to a variety of people. Cory Johnston has been thoughtfully talking to people and attempting to promote critical thinking, social justice, and left-wing politics.”

Cory needs our support. We rise by helping each other.

Cory Johnston ☭ Ⓐ @Skepticallefty Evidence-based atheist leftist (he/him) Producer, host, and co-host of 4 podcasts @skeptarchy @skpoliticspod and @AthopeMarie

Damien Marie AtHope (“At Hope”) Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist. Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Poet, Philosopher, Advocate, Activist, Psychology, and Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Historian.

Damien is interested in: Freedom, Liberty, Justice, Equality, Ethics, Humanism, Science, Atheism, Antiteism, Antireligionism, Ignosticism, Left-Libertarianism, Anarchism, Socialism, Mutualism, Axiology, Metaphysics, LGBTQI, Philosophy, Advocacy, Activism, Mental Health, Psychology, Archaeology, Social Work, Sexual Rights, Marriage Rights, Woman’s Rights, Gender Rights, Child Rights, Secular Rights, Race Equality, Ageism/Disability Equality, Etc. And a far-leftist, “Anarcho-Humanist.”

I am not a good fit in the atheist movement that is mostly pro-capitalist, I am anti-capitalist. Mostly pro-skeptic, I am a rationalist not valuing skepticism. Mostly pro-agnostic, I am anti-agnostic. Mostly limited to anti-Abrahamic religions, I am an anti-religionist. 

To me, the “male god” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 7,000 years ago, whereas the now favored monotheism “male god” is more like 4,000 years ago or so. To me, the “female goddess” seems to have either emerged or become prominent around 11,000-10,000 years ago or so, losing the majority of its once prominence around 2,000 years ago due largely to the now favored monotheism “male god” that grow in prominence after 4,000 years ago or so. 

My Thought on the Evolution of Gods?

Animal protector deities from old totems/spirit animal beliefs come first to me, 13,000/12,000 years ago, then women as deities 11,000/10,000 years ago, then male gods around 7,000/8,000 years ago. Moralistic gods around 5,000/4,000 years ago, and monotheistic gods around 4,000/3,000 years ago. 

Damien Marie AtHope’s Art

Damien Marie AtHope (Said as “At” “Hope”)/(Autodidact Polymath but not good at math):

Axiological Atheist, Anti-theist, Anti-religionist, Secular Humanist, Rationalist, Writer, Artist, Jeweler, Poet, “autodidact” Philosopher, schooled in Psychology, and “autodidact” Armchair Archaeology/Anthropology/Pre-Historian (Knowledgeable in the range of: 1 million to 5,000/4,000 years ago). I am an anarchist socialist politically. Reasons for or Types of Atheism

My Website, My Blog, & Short-writing or QuotesMy YouTube, Twitter: @AthopeMarie, and My Email:

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